Skip to main content
Log in

Chemical profile and antimicrobial activity of essential oil and methanol extract from peels of four Durio zibethinus L. varieties

  • Original Article
  • Published:
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery Aims and scope Submit manuscript


Durio zibethinus L. (durian) belongs to the Malvaceae family. It is known as the “King of Tropical Fruit” because of its unique characteristics. The edible part of durian, however, is only about 33% of the fruit while the non-edible parts such as the seed and peels (rinds) are considered as fruit waste responsible for environmental pollution. Thus, the present study was carried out to compare the percentage yields and volatile components from methanol extract and essential oils of the peels of four varieties of durian (Raja Kunyit [D197], Hajah Hasmah [D168], Sultan [D24], and Golden Bun [D13]). The antimicrobial activity of all the extracts and their volatile chemical constituents were also evaluated. Cold maceration was used for the solvent (methanol) extraction. The essential oil extraction was carried out using hydro-distillation and solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) methods. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against selected microbes using the well diffusion method while the characterization of chemical constituents in the essential oils and crude methanolic extracts was carried out using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The highest yields of essential oils were obtained from D24 which were 0.030% and 0.014% from SFME and hydro-distillation extraction, respectively, while the highest and most significant (p < 0.05) yield of methanol extract (8.79%) was obtained from D197. From the GC–MS analysis, butanoic acid was the major compound in the essential oil of durian peels in the four varieties of durians evaluated. Besides butanoic acid, 1-tridecene, 1-pentadecene, and 1-heptadecene were also present in the four varieties. The D168 possesses strong activity against three bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). More novel extraction techniques, bioactivity assays, and characterization are, however, recommended to further explore the potential benefits of durian peels.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. Abers M, Schroeder S, Goelz L, Sulser A, St. Rose T, Puchalski K, Langland J (2021) Antimicrobial activity of the volatile substances from essential oils. BMC Complement Med Ther 21(124):1–14

    Google Scholar 

  2. Adegoke AS, Jerry OV, Ademola OG (2019) GC-MS analysis of phytochemical constituents in methanol extract of wood bark from Durio zibethinus Murr. Int J Med Plants Nat Prod 5(3):1–11

    Google Scholar 

  3. Ahmed IA (2021) Ethnomedicinal uses of some common Malaysian medicinal plants. In: Pharmacognosy - medicinal plants IntechOpen, (2021), 1–16

  4. Ahmed IA, Mikail MA (2017) Paradigm shift: focusing on plant-based natural antimicrobials. J Microbiol Exp 5(2):00145 (1-2)

    Google Scholar 

  5. Ahmed IA, Mikail MA, Ibrahim M, Hazali N, Abdul Rasad MSB, Ghani A, R…Yayha, M.A. (2015) Antioxidant activity and phenolic profile of various morphological parts of underutilized Baccaurea angulata fruit. Food Chem 172(2015):778–787

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Ahmed IA, Mikail MA, Mustafa MR, Ibrahim M, Othman R (2019) Lifestyle interventions for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Saudi J Biol Sci 26(2019):1519–1524

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Ahmed IA, Mikail MA, Zamakshshari N, Abdullah AH (2020) Natural anti-aging skincare: role and potential. Biogerontology 21(3):293-3101–18

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Al-Madhagi WM, Hashim NM, Ali NAA, Othman R (2019) Phytochemical screening, cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of Limonium socotranum and Peperomia blanda extracts. Trop Biomed 36(1):11–21

    Google Scholar 

  9. Ang AMG, Nalda C, Sabejon SE (2018) Brine shrimp lethality and antioxidant activity of the leaf, rind and seed ethanolic extracts of Durio zibethinus L. Asian J Biol Life Sci 7(3):105

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Aparna V, Dileep KV, Mandal PK, Karthe P, Karthe P, Sadasivan C, Haridas M (2012) Anti-inflammatory property of n-hexacanoic acid: structural evident and kinetic assessment. Chem Biol Drug Des 80(3):434–439.

  11. Aziz NAA, MhdJalil AMJF (2019) Bioactive compounds, nutritional value, and potential health benefits of indigenous durian (Durio zibethinus Murr.): A review. Foods 8(3):1–18

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Baraheng S, Karrila T (2019) Chemical and functional properties of durian (Durio zibethinus Murr.) seed flour and starch. Food Biosci 30:100412

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Bo Z, Li SQ, Xin G, Li TC, Wu J (2012) Analysis of volatile components in different parts of durian fruit by GC/MS. Shipin yanjiu Yu kaifa 33:130–134

    Google Scholar 

  14. Charoenkiatkul S, Thiyajai P, Judprasong K (2016) Nutrients and bioactive compounds in popular and indigenous durian (Durio zibethinus Murr.). Food Chem 193:181–186

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Chigurupati S, Mohammad J, Vijayabalan S, Vaipuri N, Selvarajan K, Nemala A (2017) Quantitative estimation and antimicrobial potential of ethanol extract of Durio zibethinus Murr. leaves. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 10(9):1–4

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Chouhan S, Sharma K, Guleria S (2017) Antimicrobial activity of some essential oils-present status and future perspectives. Medicines (Basel, Switzerland) 4(3):58

    Google Scholar 

  17. Coban HB (2020) Organic acids as antimicrobial food agents: applications and microbial productions. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 43:569–591

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Cornelia M, Siratantri T, Prawita R (2015) The utilization of extract durian (Durio zibethinus L.) seed gum as an emulsifier in vegan mayonnaise. Procedia Food Sci 3(2015):1–18

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Duazo NO, Bautista JR, Teves FG (2012) Crude methanolic extract activity from rinds and seeds of native durian (Durio zibethinus) against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. 6(35): 6483–6486

  20. Feng N, Guo X, Liang S (2009) Adsorption study of copper (II) by chemically modified orange peel. J Hazard Mater 164:1286–1292

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Foo KY, Hameed BH (2012) Textural porosity surface chemistry and adsorptive properties of durian shell-derived activated carbon prepared by microwave-assisted NaOH activation. Chem Eng J 187:53–62

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Garcia-Barrera T, Gomez-Ariza JL, Gonzalez-Fernandez M, Moreno F, Garcia-Sevillano MA, Gomez-Jacinto V (2012) Biological responses related to agonistic, antagonistic and synergistic interaction of chemical species. Anal Bioanal Chem 403:2237–2253.

  23. Ho LH, Bhat R (2015) Exploring the potential nutraceutical values of durian (Durio zibethinus L.) – an exotic tropical fruit. Food Chem 168:80–89

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Ikram R, Low KH, Hashim N, Ahmad W, Nasharuddin MA (2018) Characterization of sulfur-compounds as chemotaxonomic markers in the essential oils of allium species by solvent-free microwave extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anal Lett 52(4):1–13

    Google Scholar 

  25. Joshua PE, Anosike CJ, YekachukwuAsomadu RO, Ekpo DE, NnaemekaUhuo EN, OFC Fred ChiletugoNwodo (2020) Bioassay-guided fractionation, phospholipase A2-inhibitory activity and structure elucidation of compounds from leaves of Chumanniophyton magnificum. Pharm Biol 58(1):1078–1085

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Kam WYJ, Mirhosseini H, Abas F, Hussain N, Hedayatnia S, Florence Chong HL (2018) Antioxidant activity enhancement of biodegradable film as active packaging utilizing crude extract from durian leaf waste. Food Control 90(2018):66–72

    Google Scholar 

  27. Kovanda L, Zhang W, Wei X, Luo J, Wu X, Atwill ER, Vaessen S, Li X, Liu Y (2019) In vitro antimicrobial activities of organic acids and their derivatives on several species of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) 24(20):3770

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Kunarto B, Sani EY (2018) Antioxidant activity of extract from ultrasonic-assisted extraction of durian peels. J Appl Food Technol 5(2):25–29

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Loquia MM, Arollado EC, Ponsaran KMG (2017) Process extracting pectin from durian. Philipp. Util. Model Appl. CODEN:PHXXCS; PH2201750082

  30. Makris DP, Boskou G, Andrikopoulos NK (2007) Recovery of antioxidant phenolics from white vinification solid by-products employing water/ethanol mixtures. Biores Technol 98:2963–2967

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Maran JP (2015) Statistical optimization of aqueous extraction of pectin from waste durian rinds. Int J Biol Macromol 73(2015):92–98

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Modak D, Paul S, Sarkar S, Thakur S, Bhattacharjee S (2021) Validating potent anti-inflammatory and anti-rheumatoid properties of Drynaria quercifolia rhizome methanolic extract through in vitro, in vivo, in silico and GC-MS-based profiling. Complement Med Ther 21(89):1–20

    Google Scholar 

  33. Mohd Ali M, Hashim N, AbdAziz S, Lasekan O (2020) Exploring the chemical composition, emerging applications, potential uses, and health benefits of durian: a review. Food Control 113:107189

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Ong S, Tan S, Khoo EC, Lee SL, Ha ST (2012) Equilibrium studies for basic blue 3 adsorptions onto durian peel (Durio zibethinus Murray). Desalin Water Treat 45(1–3):161–169

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Ouchari L, Boukeskasse A, Bouizgarne B, Ouhdouch Y (2019) Antimicrobial potential of actinomycetes isolated from the unexplored hot Merzouga desert and their taxonomic diversity. Biol Open 8(2):bio035410

    Google Scholar 

  36. Ramli ANM, Sukri NAM, Azelee NIW, Bhuyar P (2021) Exploration of antibacterial and antioxidative activity of seed/peel extracts of Southeast Asian fruit Durian (Durio zibethinus) for effective shelf‐life enhancement of preserved meat. 45(9):e15662

  37. Rashed AQ, Khan MD, Moghal MMR, Amin MN, Hossain MS, Hossain MD (2013) Analgesic and antipyretic activities of two medicinal plants- Salvinia minimum and Dactyloctenium australe in experimental animal models. Der Pharmacia Sinica 4(3):183–187

    Google Scholar 

  38. Saminathan V, Doraiswamy RJ (2020) Phytochemical analysis, antioxidant and anticancer activities of durian (Durio zibethinus Murr.) fruit extract. J Res Pharm 24(6):882–892

    Google Scholar 

  39. Shah M, Garg SK (2014) Application of 2k full factorial design in optimization of solvent-free microwave extraction of ginger essential oil. J Eng 2014(828606):1–5

    Google Scholar 

  40. Shitu A, Muhammad AI, Yoshida H, Izhar S (2016) Production of phenolic compounds from durian peel waste using sub-critical water, International Conference on Agricultural and Food Engineering (Cafei2016) 23–25 August 2016

  41. Silva A, Wickramaarachchi S, Attanayake R, Rajapakse C (2019) Bioactive properties of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) and Durian (Durio zibethinus Murr.) peel extracts

  42. Tan YL, Abdullah AZ, Hameed BH (2017) Fast pyrolysis of durian (Durio zibethinus L) shell in a drop-type fixed bed reactor: pyrolysis behavior and product analyses. Biores Technol 243:85–92

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Trieu TA, Luu TH, Tri DL (2018) Effect of extraction process on extraction yield, total polyphenol content and antioxidant activities of Jasminum subtriplinerve. IOP Conf Ser Mater Sci Eng 544:012027

    Google Scholar 

  44. Yee SYY (2021) Medicinal properties of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in Durio zibethinus. Malays J Sustain Agric 5(2):82–89

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Younoussa L, Kenmoe F, Oumarou MK, Batti ACS, Tamesse JL, Nukenine EN (2020) Combined effect of methanol extracts and essential oils of Callistemon rigidus (Myrtaceae) and Eucalyptus camaldulensis (Myrtaceae) against Anopheles gambiae Giles larvae (Diptera: Culicidae). Int J Zool 2020(4952041):1–9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Zakaria AA (2020) Managing Durian Orchards in Malaysia. Universiti Malaysia Press

  47. Zamakshshari N, Lian-Ee GC, Ismail IS, Ibrahim Z, Mah SH (2019) Cytotoxic xanthones isolated from Calophyllum depressinervosum and Calophyllum buxifolium with antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. Food Chem Toxicol 133:110800

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Zamakshshari NH, Ahmed IA, Nasharuddin MNA, MohdHashim N, Mustafa MR, Othman R, Noordin MI (2021) Effect of extraction procedure on the yield and biological activities of hydroxychavicol from Piper betle L. leaves. J Appl Res Med Aromat Plants 24:100320

    Google Scholar 

  49. Zhang YL, Zhu LQ, Yang XX, Wang G, Zhu FH (2015) Testing and evaluation of durian peel nutrient component. Heilongjiang Xumu Shouyi 7:138–140

    Google Scholar 

Download references


The authors would like to acknowledge financial support from Universiti Malaya under IIRG002A-2019 grant and research facilities as well as MRUN2019-2A Knowledge Transfer Programme (KTP) Grant. Durian stalls SS2, Petaling Jaya, Selangor Malaysia are also acknowledged for the provision of fresh durian peel samples.


Pusat Penyelidikan dan Inovasi,Universiti Malaysia Sabah,IIRG002A-2019,Najihah Mohd Hashim,MRUN2019-2A,Rosazlin Abdullah

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Idris Adewale Ahmed, Najihah Mohd Hashim or Rosazlin Abdullah.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.


• The peels of Durio zibethinus L. (durian) can be bioconverted into an antimicrobial agent.

• D24 durian variety yields a high amount of essential oils.

• Butanoic acid is a major compound in the essential oil of durian peels.

• Solvent-free microwave extraction method is more attractive for essential oil extraction.

Supplementary Information

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary file1 (DOCX 650 KB)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Zamakshshari, N.H., Ahmed, I.A., Didik, N.A.M. et al. Chemical profile and antimicrobial activity of essential oil and methanol extract from peels of four Durio zibethinus L. varieties. Biomass Conv. Bioref. 13, 13995–14003 (2023).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: