Preparation and evaluation of particleboard from insect rearing residue and rice husks using starch/citric acid mixture as a natural binder


This study evaluated the feasibility of manufacturing particleboard from the combinations of insect (black soldier fly larvae) rearing residue and rice husks at different ratios using citric acid/tapioca starch as a natural binder. Physical and mechanical properties of particleboards including density, moisture content, water absorption, thickness swelling, modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, internal bond strength, and screw withdrawal resistance were investigated. The results showed that the increase of insect rearing residue significantly increased the water absorption and thickness swelling and decrease the modulus of rupture. The modulus of elasticity, internal bond strength, and screw withdrawal resistance was slightly enhanced when the ratio of insect rearing residue was increased from 10 to 30 wt% with a corresponding reduced ratio of rice husk in the particleboards. Nevertheless, the modulus of elasticity, internal bond strength, and screw withdrawal resistance remarkably decreased when the ratio of insect rearing residue in the boards was over 30 wt%. Among all prepared particleboards, only particleboard B which was composed of 20 wt% insect rearing residue, 50 wt% rice husk, and 30 wt% binder met all the JIS A 5908 requirements for basic particleboard type 8. Based on the results, although further improvements are required, using insect rearing residue combined with agroindustrial wastes for particleboard manufacturing is feasible and possesses the patentability to mitigate the issues associated with deforestation and shortage of raw materials.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig 1
Fig 2
Fig 3
Fig 4
Fig 5
Fig 6
Fig 7


  1. 1.

    Vitoussia T, Brillard A, Kehrli D, Kemajou A, Njeugna E, Brilhac J-F (2019) Thermogravimetric analyses and kinetic modeling of pellets built with three Cameroonian biomass. Biomass Convers Biorefin.

  2. 2.

    Curtis PG, Slay CM, Harris NL, Tyukavina A, Hansen MC (2018) Classifying drivers of global forest loss. Science 361:1108–1111

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Chen B, Luo Z, Cai T, Cai D, Zhang C, Qin P, Cao H (2018) The effect of corn varieties on the production of fiber-reinforced high-density polyethylene composites. Biomass Convers Biorefin 8:953–963

  4. 4.

    Azizi K, Tabarsa T, Ashori A (2011) Performance characterizations of particleboards made with wheat straw and waste veneer splinters. Compos Part B 42:2085–2089

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Chalapud MC, Herdt M, Nicolao ES, Ruseckaite RA, Ciannamea EM, Stefani PM (2020) Biobased particleboards based on rice husk and soy proteins: effect of the impregnation with tung oil on the physical and mechanical behavior. Constr Build Mater 230:116996

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Ciannamea EM, Marin D, Ruseckaite RA, Stefani PM (2017) Particleboard based on rice husk: effect of binder content and processing conditions. J Renew Mater 5:357–362

  7. 7.

    Ribeiro DP, Vilela AP, Silva DW, Napoli A, Mendes RF (2019) Effect of heat treatment on the properties of sugarcane bagasse medium density particleboard (MDP) panels. Waste Biomass Valori.

  8. 8.

    Taghiyari HR, Taheri A, Omrani P (2017) Correlation between acoustic and physical–mechanical properties of insulating composite boards made from sunflower stalk and wood chips. Eur J Wood Wood Prod 75:409–418

  9. 9.

    Baskaran M, Hashim R, Sulaiman O, Awalludin MF, Sudesh K, Arai T, Kosugi A (2019) Properties of particleboard manufactured from oil palm trunk waste using polylactic acid as a natural binder. Waste Biomass Valori 10:179–186

  10. 10.

    Kusumah SS, Umemura K, Guswenrivo I, Yoshimura T, Kanayama K (2017) Utilization of sweet sorghum bagasse and citric acid for manufacturing of particleboard II: influences of pressing temperature and time on particleboard properties. J Wood Sci 63:161–172

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Rajendran K, Surendra K, Tomberlin JK, Khanal SK (2018) Insect-based biorefinery for bioenergy and bio-based products, in: Waste Biorefinery, Elsevier, 657-669

  12. 12.

    Chou T-H, Nugroho DS, Cheng Y-S, Chang J-Y (2019) Development and characterization of nano-emulsions based on oil extracted from black soldier fly larvae. Appl Biochem Biotechnol:1–15

  13. 13.

    Wang H, ur Rehman K, Liu X, Yang Q, Zheng L, Li W, Cai M, Li Q, Zhang J, Yu Z (2017) Insect biorefinery: a green approach for conversion of crop residues into biodiesel and protein. Biotechnol Biofuels 10:304

  14. 14.

    Huang C, Feng W, Xiong J, Wang T, Wang W, Wang C, Yang F (2019) Impact of drying method on the nutritional value of the edible insect protein from black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) larvae: amino acid composition, nutritional value evaluation, in vitro digestibility, and thermal properties. Eur Food Res Technol 245:11–21

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Zahn NH, Quilliam R (2017) The effects of insect frass created by Hermetia illucens on spring onion growth and soil fertility, in, Bachelor’s thesis. University of Stirling, Stirling

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Houben D, Daoulas G, Faucon M-P, Dulaurent A-M (2020) Potential use of mealworm frass as a fertilizer: impact on crop growth and soil properties. Sci Rep 10:1–9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Santos F, Machado G, Faria D, Lima J, Marçal N, Dutra E, Souza G (2017) Productive potential and quality of rice husk and straw for biorefineries. Biomass Convers Biorefin 7:117–126

  18. 18.

    Huong PT, Jitae K, Al Tahtamouni T, Tri NLM, Kim H-H, Cho KH, Lee C (2020) Novel activation of peroxymonosulfate by biochar derived from rice husk toward oxidation of organic contaminants in wastewater. J Water Process Eng 33:101037

  19. 19.

    Qin L, Gao X, Chen T (2018) Recycling of raw rice husk to manufacture magnesium oxysulfate cement based lightweight building materials. J Clean Prod 191:220–232

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Prasara-A J, Gheewala SH (2017) Sustainable utilization of rice husk ash from power plants: a review. J Clean Prod 167:1020–1028

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Pham VP (2020) Rice husk ash burnt in simple conditions for soil stabilization, in: Geotechnics for sustainable infrastructure development, Springer, 717-721

  22. 22.

    Nath SK, Islam MN, Rahman K-S, Rana MN (2018) Tannin-based adhesive from Ceriops decandra (Griff.) bark for the production of particleboard. J Indian Acad Wood Sci 15:21–27

  23. 23.

    Jia L, Chu J, Li J, Ren J, Huang P, Li D (2020) Formaldehyde and VOC emissions from plywood panels bonded with bio-oil phenolic resins. Environ Pollut 264:114819

  24. 24.

    Antov P, Savov V, Neykov N (2020) Sustainable bio-based adhesives for eco-friendly wood composites. A review. Wood Res 65:51–62

  25. 25.

    Ferreira AM, Pereira J, Almeida M, Ferra J, Paiva N, Martins J, Magalhães FD, Carvalho LH (2019) Low-cost natural binder for particleboards production: study of manufacture conditions and stability. Int J Adhes Adhes 93:102325

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Salleh KM, Hashim R, Sulaiman O, Hiziroglu S, Wan Nadhari WNA, Abd Karim N, Jumhuri N, Ang LZP (2015) Evaluation of properties of starch-based adhesives and particleboard manufactured from them. J Adhes Sci Technol 29:319–336

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Ghahri S, Pizzi A (2018) Improving soy-based adhesives for wood particleboard by tannins addition. Wood Sci Technol 52:261–279

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Sun S, Zhao Z, Umemura K (2019) Further exploration of sucrose-citric acid adhesive: Synthesis and application on plywood. Polymers 11:1875

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Umemura K, Ueda T, Munawar SS, Kawai S (2012) Application of citric acid as natural adhesive for wood. J Appl Polym Sci 123:1991–1996

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Widyorini R, Umemura K, Isnan R, Putra DR, Awaludin A, Prayitno TA (2016) Manufacture and properties of citric acid-bonded particleboard made from bamboo materials. Eur J Wood Wood Prod 74:57–65

  31. 31.

    Del Menezzi C, Amirou S, Pizzi A, Xi X, Delmotte L (2018) Reactions with wood carbohydrates and lignin of citric acid as a bond promoter of wood veneer panels. Polymers 10:833

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Wu H, Lei Y, Lu J, Zhu R, Xiao D, Jiao C, Xia R, Zhang Z, Shen G, Liu Y (2019) Effect of citric acid induced crosslinking on the structure and properties of potato starch/chitosan composite films. Food Hydrocoll 97:105208

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Ciriminna R, Meneguzzo F, Delisi R, Pagliaro M (2017) Citric acid: emerging applications of key biotechnology industrial product. Chem Cent J 11:22

  34. 34.

    Chen L, Wang Y, Fei P, Jin W, Xiong H, Wang Z (2017) Enhancing the performance of starch-based wood adhesive by silane coupling agent (KH570). Int J Biol Macromol 104:137–144

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Gadhave RV, Mahanwar PA, Gadekar PT (2017) Starch-based adhesives for wood/wood composite bonding: review. Open J Polym Chem 7:19–32

  36. 36.

    Seidel C, Kulicke WM, Heß C, Hartmann B, Lechner MD, Lazik W (2001) Influence of the cross-linking agent on the gel structure of starch derivatives. Starke 53:305–310

  37. 37.

    Amini MHM, Hashim R, Sulaiman NS, Mohamed M, Sulaiman O (2020) Citric acid-modified starch as an environmentally friendly binder for wood composite making. Bioresources 15:4234–4248

  38. 38.

    Moubarik A, Pizzi A, Allal A, Charrier F, Khoukh A, Charrier B (2010) Cornstarch–mimosa tannin–urea formaldehyde resins as adhesives in the particleboard production. Starke 62:131–138

  39. 39.

    Turunen M, Alvila L, Pakkanen TT, Rainio J (2003) Modification of phenol–formaldehyde resol resins by lignin, starch, and urea. J Appl Polym Sci 88:582–588

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Hemmilä V, Adamopoulos S, Karlsson O, Kumar A (2017) Development of sustainable bio-adhesives for engineered wood panels–a review. RSC Adv 7:38604–38630

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Wang H-MD, Cheng Y-S, Huang C-H, Huang C-W (2016) Optimization of high solids dilute acid hydrolysis of spent coffee ground at mild temperature for enzymatic saccharification and microbial oil fermentation. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 180:753–765

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Widyorini R, Umemura K, Kusumaningtyas AR, Prayitno TA (2017) Effect of starch addition on properties of citric acid-bonded particleboard made from bamboo. Bioresources 12:8068–8077

  43. 43.

    Sarı B, Ayrilmis N, Nemli G, Baharoğlu M, Gümüşkaya E, Bardak S (2014) Effect of chemical composition of wood and resin type on properties of particleboard. Lignocellulose J 1:174–184

  44. 44.

    Yildirim-Aksoy M, Eljack R, Beck BH (2020) Nutritional value of frass from black soldier fly larvae, Hermetia illucens, in a channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, diet. Aquac Nutr 26:812–819

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Aderolu A, Iyayi E, Onilude A (2007) Changes in nutritional value of rice husk during Trichoderma viride degradation. Bulg J Agric Sci 13:583–589

  46. 46.

    Alipour N, Vinnerås B, Gouanvé F, Espuche E, Hedenqvist MS (2019) A Protein-based material from a new approach using whole defatted larvae, and its interaction with moisture. Polymers 11:287

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Khosravi S, Khabbaz F, Nordqvist P, Johansson M (2010) Protein-based adhesives for particleboards. Ind Crop Prod 32:275–283

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Nemli G, Gezer ED, Yıldız S, Temiz A, Aydın A (2006) Evaluation of the mechanical, physical properties and decay resistance of particleboard made from particles impregnated with Pinus brutia bark extractives. Bioresour Technol 97:2059–2064

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Boon J, Hashim R, Sulaiman O, Sugimoto T, Sato M, Salim N, Amini M, Izaida IN, Fatimah MS (2006) Importance of lignin on the properties of binderless particleboard made from oil palm trunk. ARPN J Eng Appl Sci 12(1):33–40

  50. 50.

    Irle MA, Barbu MC, Reh R, Bergland L, Rowell RM (2012) 10 wood composites, Handbook of wood chemistry and wood composites 321

  51. 51.

    İstek A, Siradag H (2013) The effect of density on particleboard properties, in: International Caucasian Forestry Symposium, 932-938

  52. 52.

    Lias H, Kasim J, Johari NAN, Mokhtar ILM (2014) Influence of board density and particle sizes on the homogenous particleboard properties from kelempayan (Neolamarckia cadamba). Int J Latest Res Sci Technol 3:173–176

  53. 53.

    Widyorini R, Umemura K, Soraya DK, Dewi GK, Nugroho WD (2019) Effect of citric acid content and extractives treatment on the manufacturing process and properties of citric acid-bonded salacca frond particleboard. Bioresources 14:4171–4180

  54. 54.

    Prasetiyo KW, Oktaviani L, Astari L, Syamani FA, Subyakto S, Achmadi SS (2018) Physical-mechanical properties and bonding mechanism of corn stalks particleboard with citric acid adhesive. J Trop Wood Sci Technol 16:131–140

  55. 55.

    Wang J, Hu Y (2016) Novel particleboard composites made from coir fiber and waste Banana stem fiber. Waste Biomass Valori 7:1447–1458

  56. 56.

    Baharoğlu M, Nemli G, Sarı B, Birtürk T, Bardak S (2013) Effects of anatomical and chemical properties of wood on the quality of particleboard. Compos Part B 52:282–285

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    Kariuki SW, Wachira J, Kawira M, Leonard GM (2019) Characterization of prototype formulated particleboards from agroindustrial lignocellulose biomass bonded with chemically modified cassava peel starch. Adv Mater Sci Eng:2019

  58. 58.

    Juliana A, Paridah M, Rahim S, Azowa IN, Anwar U (2012) Properties of particleboard made from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) as function of particle geometry. Mater Des 34:406–411

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. 59.

    Li X, Cai Z, Winandy JE, Basta AH (2010) Selected properties of particleboard panels manufactured from rice straws of different geometries. Bioresour Technol 101:4662–4666

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    Fiorelli J, Galo R, Junior SC, Belini U, Lasso P, Savastano H (2018) Multilayer particleboard produced with agroindustrial waste and Amazonia vegetable fibres. Waste Biomass Valori 9:1151–1161

  61. 61.

    Hashim R, Saari N, Sulaiman O, Sugimoto T, Hiziroglu S, Sato M, Tanaka R (2010) Effect of particle geometry on the properties of binderless particleboard manufactured from oil palm trunk. Mater Des 31:4251–4257

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    Zeleniuc O, Brenci L-M, Cosereanu C, Fotin A (2019) Influence of adhesive type and content on the properties of particleboard made from sunflower husks. Bioresources 14:7316–7331

Download references


The funding of this study was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan (project # 108-2221-E-224 -028 and 108-2218-E-224 -002).

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yu-Shen Cheng.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Huang, H., Hsu, C., Hsu, P. et al. Preparation and evaluation of particleboard from insect rearing residue and rice husks using starch/citric acid mixture as a natural binder. Biomass Conv. Bioref. (2020).

Download citation


  • Insect rearing residue
  • Rice husk
  • Particleboard
  • Nature binder
  • Insect biorefinery