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Production and optimization of NaCl-activated carbon from mango seed using response surface methodology


Granular activated carbon (AC) produced from mango seed husk through chemical activation with NaCl has potential application in adsorption cooling system. The study investigated the relationship among process parameters and effects on physicochemical and functional properties of AC. Production conditions were optimized using response surface methodology for impregnation ratio (0.25, 0.5, and 0.75), soaking time (2 h, 4 h, and 6 h), and activation temperature (400 °C, 450 °C, and 500 °C). Surface area, ash content, and bulk density were response variables. The AC was produced with comparable quality to commercial AC. Impregnation ratio, soaking time, and carbonization temperature, but not their interaction, had significant effects (p < 0.05) on AC surface area, ash content, and bulk density. Optimum production conditions for soaking time, impregnation ratio, and carbonization temperature were 4 h, 0.25, and 500 °C, respectively, which gave BET surface area, ash content, and bulk density of 415 m2 g−1, 6.92%, and 243 kg m−3, respectively.

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The authors are indebted to Prof. Görgens for providing access to the pyrolysis equipment and the staff at the Analytical Laboratory at Department of Process Engineering, Stellenbosch University, for the technical support in the analysis of samples. The authors are also thankful to Hoedspruit Fruit Processors (South Africa) for providing the mango seeds.


The authors are grateful for the financial support from the National Research Foundation (NRF) of South Africa under the Research and Technology Fund (RTF) and the Department of Process Engineering, Stellenbosch University.

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Correspondence to Annie Chimphango.

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Dzigbor, A., Chimphango, A. Production and optimization of NaCl-activated carbon from mango seed using response surface methodology. Biomass Conv. Bioref. 9, 421–431 (2019).

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  • Activated carbon
  • Chemical activation
  • Optimization
  • Response surface methodology