Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery

, Volume 8, Issue 3, pp 699–710 | Cite as

Valorisation of adzuki bean waste to biofuel precursors via pyrolysis: kinetics, product distribution and characterisation

  • Isah Yakub MohammedEmail author
  • Yousif Abdalla Abakr
  • Robert Mokaya
Original Article


The use of non-food materials such as agro-residues as feedstock for renewable energy production continues to generate greater interests due to the environmental challenges from the utilisation of fossil-based fuels. This study gives the first report on thermochemical characteristics, pyrolysis kinetics and pyrolysis product distribution from adzuki bean waste (pod). The pyrolysis characteristic was evaluated under a non-isothermal condition at a different heating rate (10, 15 and 20 °C/min) and kinetic parameters determined using distributed activation energy model. The result indicates that the model adequately described the pyrolysis characteristics of the feedstock with high correlation coefficient (R2 > 0.9) and apparent activation of 140.81 kJ/mol. The result of pyrolysis study revealed that adzuki bean pod could be valorised into solid, liquid (bio-oil) and gas products with maximum bio-oil yield of 46.57 wt% at 600 °C. The bio-oil collected contains high-value fuel precursors and value-added chemicals such as phenol and phenol derivatives, benzene and methyl ester. The gas product comprised of combustible gases, which can serve as an alternative energy source to the pyrolysis system. The solid bio-char product is predominately a porous carbon material with indicators of high stability. This material can also be utilised for energy application in addition to carbon sequestration. The presence of macronutrients suggests its suitability for bio-fertiliser application. This study shows that adzuki bean waste is a potential feedstock for production of alternative energy and valuable biomaterials.


Adzuki bean waste Thermogravimetric analysis Pyrolysis Bio-oil Bio-char Non-condensable gas 



The authors acknowledge the support from Crops for the Future (CFF), EcoKnights Malaysia and the University of Nottingham.

Funding information

This work is supported by the Energy for Life/EPSRC Global Challenges Research Fund (Project No: RIS 355037(UK) and IAE M0001 (UNMC) 2017/18).

Supplementary material

13399_2018_318_MOESM1_ESM.docx (67 kb)
Figure S1 (DOCX 66 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Isah Yakub Mohammed
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  • Yousif Abdalla Abakr
    • 1
  • Robert Mokaya
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical, Manufacturing and Materials EngineeringUniversity of Nottingham Malaysia CampusSemenyihMalaysia
  2. 2.School of ChemistryUniversity of NottinghamNottinghamUK
  3. 3.Department of Chemical EngineeringAbubakar Tafawa Balewa UniversityBauchiNigeria

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