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Table 4 Means, standard deviations, factor loadings, and item total correlations of emotional labor

From: Emotional labor and burnout among Turkish primary school teachers

Scale Item M SD FLa ITCb
Deep acting
 As a teacher, I try to be unbiased towards all students 4.71 0.50 0.812 0.737
 I sincerely try to deal with special students in need 4.55 0.63 0.753 0.660
 I try to have different viewpoints to avoid prejudices towards students 4.53 0.67 0.783 0.689
 I make an effort to act empathetically in relationships with students 4.52 0.66 0.821 0.747
 I do my best to help underachievers 4.49 0.68 0.472 0.388
 I do my best so as not to reflect my personal problems 4.49 0.71 0.758 0.673
 I make an effort to act fairly although I love some students more 4.46 0.76 0.616 0.525
 I make an effort so as not to develop negative attitudes towards students who have family problems 4.35 0.99 0.714 0.620
 I try to control myself to stay calm in extraordinary situations in class (e.g. an accident where a student gets injured) 4.32 0.75 0.686 0.591
 I force myself to develop positive attitudes towards undisciplined students to win them over 4.26 0.76 0.400 0.325
Surface acting
 I pretend to be happy when students display positive behaviors in order to reinforce such behaviors 4.33 1.00 0.744 0.614
 I pretend to seem well so as not to reflect my personal problems 4.24 0.88 0.320 0.262
 I pretend to care about students’ problems when they share their problems 4.22 1.01 0.600 0.467
 I demonstrate affection to special students although I am not eager to 4.20 1.07 0.770 0.666
 I pretend to be happy when students tell me something that makes them happy 4.19 0.94 0.760 0.643
 I pretend to be sad when students tell me something that makes them sad 4.19 0.87 0.628 0.535
 I respond to demonstrations of affection by students even when I do not feel like doing so 4.12 0.86 0.619 0.509
 I hide my feelings from those who I like more than others 4.11 0.89 0.342 0.300
 I pretend to be enthusiastic even when I am in a bad mood in order to motivate students 4.10 0.81 0.425 0.361
 I laugh at students’ jokes even when they are not funny 3.77 1.00 0.466 0.387
 I pretend to be sad to prevent students’ negative behaviors 3.71 1.07 0.614 0.519
 I exaggeratedly praise students’ correct answers even when I do not feel like doing so 3.57 1.07 0.747 0.658
 I pretend to be cross with students to prevent the repetition of undesirable student behaviors 3.16 1.17 0.402 0.306
Genuine emotions
 I feel good when I see students being cheerful 4.85 0.39 0.762 0.575
 I compassionately support students with health problems for their academic achievement 4.68 0.53 0.791 0.598
 I sincerely support underachievers by believing in them 4.44 0.70 0.759 0.585
 In case of emergency (e.g. fire), I stay calm 4.35 0.75 0.647 0.446
 I feel sad when I see students being sad 4.32 0.80 0.636 0.445
  1. aFactor loadings (for pilot study)
  2. bItem total correlations (for pilot study)