Skip to main content
Log in

Cyclic Performance of RC Shear Wall Embedded with X-Shaped Web Reinforcement

  • Research Article-Civil Engineering
  • Published:
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering Aims and scope Submit manuscript


Over the past few decades, the study on shear walls with various configurations of reinforcement detailing has shown significant growth due to its efficient performance under earthquake forces. The current work experimentally explores the seismic performance of reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall detailed with X-shaped web reinforcement configuration. Four numbers of 1:4 scaled models of RC shear wall specimens are tested under cyclic force combined with constant axial force. The first specimen is detailed with conventional reinforcement, whereas the remaining ones are detailed with X-shaped reinforcement embedded in the web portion. The failure characteristics and hysteresis curves of all the specimens are compared. The shear wall provided with more counts of X-shaped web reinforcement showed a desirable flexural failure mode with stable ductile hysteresis behavior. A theoretical equation is proposed to predict the lateral force capacity. Theoretically predicted lateral force showed a reasonable percentage of deviation compared with experimental lateral force. The experimental lateral capacity of RC shear wall was also verified using the finite element model in ANSYS software. It is observed that the results of FEA show similar patterns to the experimental one and predicted the non-linear behavior response of the specimen up to the peak stage. The structural properties including lateral strength, stiffness, energy dissipation and ductility are calculated at various loading stages. The results revealed that the specimens detailed with more counts of X-shaped web reinforcement showed improved elastic and inelastic response which resulted in superior structural properties compared with other specimens.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. Carrillo, J.; Lizarazo, J.M.; Bonett, R.: Effect of lightweight and low-strength concrete on seismic performance of thin lightly-reinforced shear walls. Eng. Struct. 93, 61–69 (2015).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Cao, W.L.; Xue, S.D.; Zhang, J.W.: Seismic performance of RC shear walls with concealed bracing. Adv. Struct. Eng. 6(1), 1–13 (2003).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Surumi, R.S.; Jaya, K.P.; Greeshma, S.: Modelling and assessment of shear wall-flat slab joint region in tall structures. Arab. J. Sci. Eng. 40, 2201–2217 (2015).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Zhao, J.; Dun, H.: A restoring force model for steel fiber reinforced concrete shear walls. Eng. Struct. 75, 469–76 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Lowes, L.N.; Lehman, D.E.; Birely, A.C.; Kuchma, D.A.; Marley, K.P.; Hart, C.R.: Earthquake response of slender planar concrete walls with modern detailing. Eng. Struct. 43, 31–47 (2012).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Sittipunt, C.; Wood, S.L.; Lukkunaprasit, P.; Pattararattanakul, P.: Cyclic behavior of reinforced concrete structural walls with diagonal web reinforcement. ACI Struct J 98(4), 554–562 (2001).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Paulay, T.; Priestley, M.J.N.; Synge, A.J.: Ductility in earthquake resisting squat shearwalls. J Am Concr Inst 79(4), 257–269 (1982)

    Google Scholar 

  8. Fiorato, A.E.; Oesterle, R.G.; Corley, W.G.: Behavior of earthquake resistant structural walls before and after repair. J. Am. Concr. Inst. 80(5), 403–13 (1983).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Oesterle, R.G.; Fiorato, A.E.; Corley, W.G.: Reinforcement details for earthquake-resistance structural walls. Concrete International, pp. 55–66 (1980)

  10. Salonikios, T.N.; Kappos, A.J.; Tegos, I.A.; Penelis, G.G.: Cyclic load behavior of low-slenderness reinforced concrete walls: design basis and test results. ACI Struct. J. 96(4), 649–60 (1999).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Shaingchin, S.; Lukkunaprasit, P.; Wood, S.L.: Influence of diagonal web reinforcement on cyclic behavior of structural walls. Eng. Struct. 29(4), 498–510 (2007).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Salonikios, T.N.; Kapos, A.J.; Tegos, I.A.; Penelis, G.G.: Cyclic load behavior of low-slenderness reinforced concrete walls: failure modes, strength and deformation analysis, and design implications. ACI Struct. J. 97(1), 132–41 (2000).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Antoniades, K.K.; Salonikios, T.N.; Kappos, A.J.: Cyclic tests on seismically damaged reinforced concrete walls strengthened using fiber-reinforced polymer reinforcement. ACI Structural Journal 100(4), 510–18 (2002).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Paulay, T.; Priestley, M. J.N.: Seismic design of reinforced concrete and masonry buildings. Wiley (1992)

  15. Wu, Y.; Dao, Y.; Yeong, B.Y.: Seismic performance of steel and concrete composite shear walls with embedded steel truss for use in high-rise buildings. Eng. Struct. 125, 39–53 (2016).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Dan, D.; Fabian, A.; Stoian, V.: Nonlinear behavior of composite shear walls with vertical steel encased profiles. Eng. Struct. 33(10), 2794–2804 (2011).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Zhang, J.W.; Zheng, W.B.; Cao, W.L.; Dong, H.Y.; Li, W.D.: Seismic behavior of low-rise concrete shear wall with single layer of web reinforcement and inclined rebars: restoring force model. KSCE J. Civil Eng. 23(3), 1302–19 (2019)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Zhang, X.; Qin, Y.; Chen, Z.: Experimental seismic behavior of innovative composite shear walls. J. Construct. Steel Res. 116, 218–32 (2016).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Lan, W.; Li, B.; Zhang, Z.: Seismic performance of steel-concrete composite structural walls with prestressed internal bracing. J Constr. Steel Res. 140, 11–24 (2018)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. ACI 318-19.: Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary. American Concrete Institute (2019)

  21. Hradil, P.; Kala, J.: Analysis of the shear failure of a reinforced concrete wall. Appl. Mech. Mater. 624, 124–129 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Oztekin, E.; Pul, S.; Hüsem, M.: Experimental determination of Drucker–Prager yield criterion parameters for normal and high strength concretes under triaxial compression. Construct. Build Mater. 112, 725–732 (2016).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. ANSYS Mechanical APDL Material Reference: ANSYS Software Revision 2020R1 (Ansys Inc)

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Vijay Thiruchengode Jothimani.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Thiruchengode Jothimani, V., Vellalapalayam Guruswamy, S. Cyclic Performance of RC Shear Wall Embedded with X-Shaped Web Reinforcement. Arab J Sci Eng 46, 4971–4983 (2021).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: