Skip to main content

Vehicular Cloud Computing Security: A Survey


Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) have recently gained a lot of interest. This is due to their capacity to improve driving safety and traffic management. VANET is designed to provide emerging applications and services to drivers in vehicular environments. On the one hand, the rapid advancement of automobile industry enables the development of vehicles with various forms of onboard computation facilities, storage, communication and sensing resources. On the other hand, the application of cloud computing (CC) affects several domains, including the transportation domain, therefore the emergence of vehicular cloud computing (VCC). VCC is an efficient technology to move VANET toward autonomous driving, vehicle control, and intelligent systems. Security and privacy issues are among the major concerns that should be addressed in the context of VCC. However, the special characteristics of VCC have made the security used in classical VANET and CC to be revised. To the best of our knowledge, there is a lack of security surveys for VCC. This paper is an attempt to discuss the challenges faced by security for VCC and future guide to handling these challenges.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4


  1. Hussain, R.; Son, J.; Eun, H.; Kim, S.; Oh, H.: Rethinking vehicular communications: Merging VANET with cloud computing. In: International Conference on Cloud Computing Technology and Science (CloudCom), pp. 606–609. IEEE (2012)

  2. Rui, L.; Guo, H.; Shi, R.; Huang, H.; Qiu, X.: Icn routing selecting scheme based on link quality for the urban vehicles’ communication. EURASIP J. Wirel. Commun. Netw. 2017(1), 1–21 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  3. Olariu, S.; Khalil, I.; Abuelela, M.: Taking VANET to the clouds. Int. J. Pervasive Comput. Commun. 7(1), 7–21 (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  4. Olariu, S.; Hristov, T.; Yan, Y.: The next paradigm shift: from vehicular networks to vehicular clouds. In: Basagni, S., Conti, M., Giordano, S., Stojmenovic, I. (eds.) Mobile Ad Hoc Networking: Cutting Edge Directions, vol. 56, 2nd edn, pp. 645–700. Wiley, Hoboken (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  5. Arif, S.; Olariu, S.; Wang, J.; Yan, G.; Yang, W.; Khalil, I.: Datacenter at the airport: Reasoning about time-dependent parking lot occupancy. IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 23(11), 2067–2080 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  6. Iannucci, P.; Gupta, M.; et al.: IBM SmartCloud: Building a Cloud Enabled Data Center. IBM Redbooks (2013)

  7. Gerla, M.: Vehicular cloud computing. In: The 11th Annual Mediterranean on Ad Hoc Networking Workshop (Med-Hoc-Net), pp. 152–155. IEEE (2012)

  8. Eltoweissy, M.; Olariu, S.; Younis, M.: Towards autonomous vehicular clouds. In: International Conference on Ad hoc networks, pp. 1–16 (2010)

  9. Fleming, B.: Smarter and safer vehicles [automotive electronics]. IEEE Veh. Technol. Mag. 7(2), 4–9 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  10. Consortium, C.C.C.; et al.: Car 2 car communication consortium manifesto overview of the c2ccc system (version 1.1). (2007)

  11. Kovacs, A.; Specifications, B.W.: Geonet strep n 216269 d2. 2 final geonet specification (2007)

  12. Jiang, D.; Delgrossi, L.: IEEE 802.11 p: towards an international standard for wireless access in vehicular environments. In: VTC Spring 2008-IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, pp. 2036–2040. IEEE (2008)

  13. Brickley, O.; Koubek, M.; Rea, S.; Pesch, D.: A network centric simulation environment for CALM-based cooperative vehicular systems. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Simulation Tools and Techniques ( ICST), ICST (Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering), pp. 70–75 (2010)

  14. Mell, P.M.; Grance, T.: The NISR definition of cloud computing. (2011)

  15. Forum, M.: Discover the world of mobile cloud computing. (2016)

  16. RLiu: Microsoft and toyota bringing the cloud to cars. (2017)

  17. Whaiduzzaman, M.; Sookhak, M.; Gani, A.; Buyya, R.: A survey on vehicular cloud computing. J. Netw. Comput. Appl. 40, 325–344 (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  18. Qin, Y.; Huang, D.; Zhang, X.: Vehicloud: Cloud computing facilitating routing in vehicular networks. In: The 11th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom), pp. 1438–1445. IEEE (2012)

  19. Liu, N.; Liu, M.; Lou, W.; Chen, G.; Cao, J.: PVA in VANETs: stopped cars are not silent. In: 2011 Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 431–435. IEEE (2011)

  20. Liu, N.; Liu, M.; Chen, G.; Cao, J.: The sharing at roadside: vehicular content distribution using parked vehicles. In: 2012 Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 2641–2645. IEEE (2012)

  21. Crepaldi, R.; Beavers, R.; Ehrat, B.; Jaeger, M.; Biersteker, S.; Kravets, R.: Loadingzones: leveraging street parking to enable vehicular internet access.In: Proceedings of the seventh ACM international workshop on Challenged networks, pp. 23–30. ACM (2012)

  22. Malandrino, F.; Casetti, C.; Chiasserini, C.F.; Fiore, M.: Content downloading in vehicular networks: what really matters. In: 2011 Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 426–430. IEEE (2011)

  23. Gu, L.; Zeng, D.; Guo, S.; Ye, B.: Leverage parking cars in a two-tier data center. In: Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), pp. 4665–4670. IEEE (2013)

  24. Chen, B.; Curtmola, R.; Ateniese, G.; Burns, R.: Remote data checking for network coding-based distributed storage systems. In: Proceedings of the 2010 ACM workshop on Cloud Computing Security, pp. 31–42. ACM (2010)

  25. Shi, C.; Ammar, M.H.; Zegura, E.W.; Naik, M.: Computing in cirrus clouds: the challenge of intermittent connectivity. In: Proceedings of the First Edition of the MCC Workshop on Mobile Cloud Computing, pp. 23–28. ACM (2012)

  26. Refaat, T.K.; Kantarci, B.; Mouftah, H.T.: Dynamic virtual machine migration in a vehicular cloud. In: Symposium on Computers and Communication (ISCC), pp. 1–6. IEEE (2014)

  27. Mousannif, H.; Khalil, I.; Al Moatassime, H.: Cooperation as a service in VANETs. J UCS 17(8), 1202–1218 (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  28. Yu, X.; Zhao, H.; Zhang, L.; Wu, S.; Krishnamachari, B.; Li, V.O.: Cooperative sensing and compression in vehicular sensor networks for urban monitoring. In: International Conference on Communications (ICC), pp. 1–5. IEEE (2010)

  29. Zhao, D.; Ma, H.; Liu, L.; Li, X.Y.: Opportunistic coverage for urban vehicular sensing. Comput. Commun. 60, 71–85 (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  30. Zhu, Y.; Liu, X.; Li, M.; Zhang, Q.: Pova: traffic light sensing with probe vehicles. IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 24(7), 1390–1400 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  31. Palazzi, C.E.; Pezzoni, F.; Ruiz, P.M.: Delay-bounded data gathering in urban vehicular sensor networks. Pervasive Mob. Comput. 8(2), 180–193 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  32. Kim, W.; Gerla, M.: Navopt: Navigator assisted vehicular route optimizer. In: Fifth International Conference on Innovative Mobile and Internet Services in Ubiquitous Computing (IMIS), pp. 450–455. IEEE (2011)

  33. Wang, W.Q.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, J.; Lim, H.B.: Smart traffic cloud: an infrastructure for traffic applications. In: The 18th International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Systems (ICPADS), pp. 822–827. IEEE (2012)

  34. Gupte, S.; Younis, M.: Vehicular networking for intelligent and autonomous traffic management. In: International Conference on Communications (ICC), pp. 5306–5310. IEEE (2012)

  35. Kumar, S.; Gollakota, S.; Katabi, D.: A cloud-assisted design for autonomous driving. In: Proceedings of the First Edition of the MCC Workshop on Mobile Cloud Computing, pp. 41–46. ACM (2012)

  36. Kumar, S.; Shi, L.; Ahmed, N.; Gil, S.; Katabi, D.; Rus, D.: Carspeak: a content-centric network for autonomous driving. ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 42(4), 259–270 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  37. Bellavista, P.; Magistretti, E.; Lee, U.; Gerla, M.: Standard integration of sensing and opportunistic diffusion for urban monitoring in vehicular sensor networks: The mobeyes architecture. In: International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE), pp. 2582–2588. IEEE (2007)

  38. Eiza, M.H.; Ni, Q.; Shi, Q.: Secure and privacy-aware cloud-assisted video reporting service in 5G-enabled vehicular networks. IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 65(10), 7868–7881 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  39. Dressler, F.; Handle, P.; Sommer, C.: Towards a vehicular cloud-using parked vehicles as a temporary network and storage infrastructure. In: Proceedings of the 2014 ACM International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies for Smart Cities, pp. 11–18. ACM (2014)

  40. Yao, H.; Bai, C.; Zeng, D.; Liang, Q.; Fan, Y.: Migrate or not? exploring virtual machine migration in roadside cloudlet-based vehicular cloud. Concurr. Comput. Pract. Exp. 27(18), 5780–5792 (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  41. Gerla, M.; Lee, E.K.; Pau, G.; Lee, U.: Internet of vehicles: from intelligent grid to autonomous cars and vehicular clouds. In: World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT), pp. 241–246. IEEE (2014)

  42. Alazawi, Z.; Altowaijri, S.; Mehmood, R.; Abdljabar, M.B.: Intelligent disaster management system based on cloud-enabled vehicular networks. In: The 11th International Conference on ITS Telecommunications (ITST), pp. 361–368. IEEE (2011)

  43. Zhu, J.; Feng, Y.; Liu, B.: PASS: parking-lot-assisted carpool over vehicular ad hoc networks. Int. J. Distrib. Sens. Netw. 9(1), 1–9 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  44. Hu, G.; Tay, W.P.; Wen, Y.: Cloud robotics: architecture, challenges and applications. IEEE Netw. 26(3), 21–28 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  45. Ma, M.; Huang, Y.; Chu, C.H.; Wang, P.: User-driven cloud transportation system for smart driving. In: The 4th International Conference on Cloud Computing Technology and Science (CloudCom), pp. 658–665. IEEE (2012)

  46. Kim, R.; Lim, H.; Krishnamachari, B.: Prefetching-based data dissemination in vehicular cloud systems. IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 65(1), 292–306 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  47. Amadeo, M.; Campolo, C.; Molinaro, A.: Crown: content-centric networking in vehicular ad hoc networks. IEEE Commun. Lett. 16(9), 1380–1383 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  48. Gerla, M.; Weng, J.T.; Pau, G.: Pics-on-wheels: Photo surveillance in the vehicular cloud. In: International Conference on Computing, Networking and Communications (ICNC), pp. 1123–1127. IEEE (2013)

  49. Panayappan, R.; Trivedi, J.M.; Studer, A.; Perrig, A.: VANET-based approach for parking space availability. In: Proceedings of the Fourth ACM International Workshop on Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks, pp. 75–76. ACM (2007)

  50. Ahmad, I.; Noor, R.M.; Ali, I.; Imran, M.; Vasilakos, A.: Characterizing the role of vehicular cloud computing in road traffic management. Int. J. Distrib. Sens. Netw. 13(5), 1–14 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  51. Engoulou, R.G.; Bellaïche, M.; Pierre, S.; Quintero, A.: VANET security surveys. Comput. Commun. 44, 1–13 (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  52. Bhardwaj, I.; Khara, S.: An analytic study of security solutions for VANET. Int. J. Comput. Appl. 132(10), 1–7 (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  53. La Vinh, H.; Cavalli, A.R.: Security attacks and solutions in vehicular ad hoc networks: a survey. Int. J. AdHoc Netw. Syst. (IJANS) 4(2), 1–20 (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  54. Xiao, Z.; Xiao, Y.: Security and privacy in cloud computing. IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutor. 15(2), 843–859 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  55. Iqbal, S.; Kiah, M.L.M.; Dhaghighi, B.; Hussain, M.; Khan, S.; Khan, M.K.; Choo, K.K.R.: On cloud security attacks: a taxonomy and intrusion detection and prevention as a service. J. Netw. Comput. Appl. 74, 98–120 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  56. Singh, S.; Jeong, Y.S.; Park, J.H.: A survey on cloud computing security: issues, threats, and solutions. J. Netw. Comput. Appl. 75, 200–222 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  57. Gu, L.; Zeng, D.; Guo, S.: Vehicular cloud computing: a survey. In: Globecom Workshops (GC Wkshps), pp. 403–407. IEEE (2013)

  58. Yan, G.; Wen, D.; Olariu, S.; Weigle, M.C.: Security challenges in vehicular cloud computing. IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst. 14(1), 284–294 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  59. Mekki, T.; Jabri, I.; Rachedi, A.; ben Jemaa, M.: Vehicular cloud networks: challenges, architectures, and future directions. Veh. Commun. 9, 268–280 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  60. Ahmad, I.; Noor, R.M.; Ali, I.; Qureshi, M.A.: The role of vehicular cloud computing in road traffic management: a survey. In: International Conference on Future Intelligent Vehicular Technologies, pp. 123–131. Springer, Berlin (2016)

  61. Sharma, M.K.; Kaur, A.: A survey on vehicular cloud computing and its security. In: 2015 1st International Conference on Next Generation Computing Technologies (NGCT), pp. 67–71. IEEE (2015)

  62. Boukerche, A.; Robson, E.: Vehicular cloud computing: architectures, applications, and mobility. Comput. Netw. 135, 171–189 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  63. Ghazizadeh, A.; Olariu, S.: Vehicular clouds: a survey and future directions. In: Mishra, B.S.P., Das, H., Dehuri, S., Jagadev, A.K. (eds.) Cloud Computing for Optimization: Foundations, Applications, and Challenges, pp. 435–463. Springer, Berlin (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  64. Jabbarpour, M.R.; Marefat, A.; Jalooli, A.; Zarrabi, H.: Could-based vehicular networks: a taxonomy, survey, and conceptual hybrid architecture. Wirel. Netw. 25(1), 335–354 (2019)

    Google Scholar 

  65. Ahmed, B.; Malik, A.W.; Hafeez, T.; Ahmed, N.: Services and simulation frameworks for vehicular cloud computing: a contemporary survey. EURASIP J. Wirel. Commun. Netw. 2019(1), 4 (2019)

    Google Scholar 

  66. ElGamal, T.: A public key cryptosystem and a signature scheme based on discrete logarithms. IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 31(4), 469–472 (1985)

    MathSciNet  MATH  Google Scholar 

  67. Ferretti, L.; Marchetti, M.; Andreolini, M.; Colajanni, M.: A symmetric cryptographic scheme for data integrity verification in cloud databases. Inf. Sci. 422, 497–515 (2018)

    MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  68. Mejri, M.N.; Ben-Othman, J.; Hamdi, M.: Survey on VANET security challenges and possible cryptographic solutions. Veh. Commun. 1(2), 53–66 (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  69. Tajeddine, A.; Kayssi, A.; Chehab, A.: A privacy-preserving trust model for VANETs. In: The 10th International Conference on Computer and Information Technology (CIT), pp. 832–837. IEEE (2010)

  70. Gazdar, T.; Rachedi, A.; Benslimane, A.; Belghith, A.: A distributed advanced analytical trust model for VANETs. In: Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), pp. 201–206. IEEE (2012)

  71. Hussain, R.; Oh, H.: Cooperation-aware VANET clouds: providing secure cloud services to vehicular ad hoc networks. JIPS 10(1), 103–118 (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  72. Hussain, R.; Abbas, F.; Son, J.; Eun, H.; Oh, H.: Privacy-aware route tracing and revocation games in VANET-based clouds. In: The 9th International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (WiMob), pp. 730–735. IEEE (2013)

  73. Han, C.; Jornet, J.M.; Fadel, E.; Akyildiz, I.F.: A cross-layer communication module for the internet of things. Comput. Netw. 57(3), 622–633 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  74. Wang, B.; Qi, Z.; Ma, R.; Guan, H.; Vasilakos, A.V.: A survey on data center networking for cloud computing. Comput. Netw. 91, 528–547 (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  75. Safi, Q.G.K.; Luo, S.; Wei, C.; Pan, L.; Chen, Q.: Piaas: cloud-oriented secure and privacy-conscious parking information as a service using VANETs. Comput. Netw. 124, 33–45 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  76. Jenefa, J.; Anita, E.M.: Secure vehicular communication using ID based signature scheme. Wirel. Pers. Commun. 98(1), 1383–1411 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  77. Nkenyereye, L.; Park, Y.; Rhee, K.H.: Secure vehicle traffic data dissemination and analysis protocol in vehicular cloud computing. J. Supercomput. 74(3), 1024–1044 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  78. Wan, C.; Zhang, J.: Efficient identity-based data transmission for VANET. J. Ambient Intell. Humaniz. Comput. 9(6), 1861–1871 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  79. Lu, Z.; Liu, W.; Wang, Q.; Qu, G.; Liu, Z.: A privacy-preserving trust model based on blockchain for VANETs. IEEE Access 6, 45655–45664 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  80. Feng, X.; Wang, L.: PAU: privacy assessment method with uncertainty consideration for cloud-based vehicular networks. Future Gener. Comput. Syst. 96, 368–375 (2019)

    Google Scholar 

  81. Hussain, R.; Rezaeifar, Z.; Lee, Y.H.; Oh, H.: Secure and privacy-aware traffic information as a service in VANET-based clouds. Pervasive Mob. Comput. 24, 194–209 (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  82. Hussain, R.; Abbas, F.; Son, J.; Oh, H.: Tiaas: secure cloud-assisted traffic information dissemination in vehicular ad hoc networks. In: The 13th International Symposium on Cluster, Cloud and Grid Computing (CCGrid), pp. 178–179. IEEE/ACM (2013)

  83. Nkenyereye, L.; Tama, B.A.; Park, Y.; Rhee, K.H.: A fine-grained privacy preserving protocol over attribute based access control for VANETs. JoWUA 6(2), 98–112 (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  84. Safi, Q.G.K.; Luo, S.; Wei, C.; Pan, L.; Yan, G.: Cloud-based security and privacy-aware information dissemination over ubiquitous VANETs. Comput. Stand. Interfaces 56, 107–115 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  85. Arora, A.; Yadav, S.K.: Block chain based security mechanism for internet of vehicles (IOV). In: 3rd International Conference on Internet of Things and Connected Technologies, (ICIoTCT), pp. 267–272. Elsevier-SSRN (2018)

  86. SathyaNarayanan, P.: A sensor enabled secure vehicular communication for emergency message dissemination using cloud services. Digit. Signal Proc. 85, 10–16 (2019)

    Google Scholar 

  87. Nie, T.; Zhang, T.: A study of DES and blowfish encryption algorithm. In: TENCON 2009 - 2009 IEEE region 10 conference, IEEE, Singapore, 23–26 Jan 2009 (2009)

  88. Timpner, J.; Schürmann, D.; Wolf, L.: Secure smartphone-based registration and key deployment for vehicle-to-cloud communications. In: Proceedings of the 2013 ACM Workshop on Security, Privacy and Dependability for Cyber Vehicles, pp. 31–36. ACM (2013)

  89. Hardt, D.: The oauth 2.0 authorization framework (IETF RFC 6749) (2012)

  90. Hesham, A.; Abdel-Hamid, A.; El-Nasr, M.A.: A dynamic key distribution protocol for PKI-based VANETs. In: Wireless Days (WD), 2011 IFIP, pp. 1–3. IEEE (2011)

  91. Bethencourt, J.; Sahai, A.; Waters, B.: Ciphertext-policy attribute-based encryption. In: IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy. SP’07, pp. 321–334. IEEE (2007)

  92. Liu, X.; Xia, Y.; Jiang, S.; Xia, F.; Wang, Y.: Hierarchical attribute-based access control with authentication for outsourced data in cloud computing. In: The 12th IEEE International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom), pp. 477–484. IEEE (2013)

  93. Hur, J.: Attribute-based secure data sharing with hidden policies in smart grid. IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 24(11), 2171–2180 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  94. Limbasiya, T.; Das, D.: Secure message confirmation scheme based on batch verification in vehicular cloud computing. Phys. Commun. (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  95. Hasrouny, H.; Bassil, C.; Samhat, A.E.; Laouiti, A.: Security risk analysis of a trust model for secure group leader-based communication in VANET. In: Laouiti, A., Qayyum, A., Saad, M.N.M. (eds.) Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks for Smart Cities, pp. 71–83. Springer, Berlin (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  96. Zhang, F.; Huang, Y.; Wang, H.; Chen, H.; Zang, B.: Palm: security preserving VM live migration for systems with VMM-enforced protection. In: Third Asia-Pacific Trusted Infrastructure Technologies Conference, APTC’08., pp 9–18. IEEE (2008)

  97. Yan, G.; Olariu, S.; Weigle, M.C.: Providing VANET security through active position detection. Comput. Commun. 31(12), 2883–2897 (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  98. Yang, L.; Zhang, T.; Song, J.; Wang, J.S.; Chen, P.: Defense of DDoS attack for cloud computing. In: International Conference on Computer Science and Automation Engineering (CSAE), vol. 2, pp. 626–629. IEEE (2012)

  99. Raiya, R.; Gandhi, S.: Survey of various security techniques in VANET. Int. J. Adv. Res. Comput. Sci. Softw. Eng. 4(6), 431–433 (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  100. Chen, Q.; Lin, W.; Dou, W.; Yu, S.: CBF: a packet filtering method for ddos attack defense in cloud environment. In: International Conference on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing (DASC), pp. 427–434. IEEE (2011)

  101. Chuang, M.C.; Lee, J.F.: Team: trust-extended authentication mechanism for vehicular ad hoc networks. IEEE Syst. J. 8(3), 749–758 (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  102. Malla, A.M.; Sahu, R.K.: Security attacks with an effective solution for dos attacks in VANET. Int. J. Comput. Appl. 66(22), 8887 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  103. Chang, S.H.; Chen, Y.S.; Cheng, S.M.: Detection of Sybil attacks in participatory sensing using cloud based trust management system. In: International Symposium on Wireless and Pervasive Computing (ISWPC), pp. 1–6. IEEE (2013)

  104. Manvi, S.; Kakkasageri, M.; Adiga, D.: Message authentication in vehicular ad hoc networks: Ecdsa based approach. In: International Conference on Future Computer and Communication. ICFCC, pp. 16–20. IEEE (2009)

  105. TamilSelvan, K.S.; Rajendiran, R.: A holistic protocol for secure data transmission in VANET. Int. J. Adv. Res. Comput. Commun. Eng. 2(6), 4840–4846 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  106. Raw, R.S.; Kumar, M.; Singh, N.: Security challenges, issues and their solutions for VANET. Int. J. Netw. Sec. Its Appl. 5(5), 95–105 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  107. Chim, T.W.; Yiu, S.; Hui, L.C.; Li, V.O.: Security and privacy issues for inter-vehicle communications in VANETs. In: The 6th Annual IEEE Communications Society Conference on Sensor, Mesh and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks Workshops, SECON Workshops’ 09, pp. 1–3. IEEE (2009)

  108. Hussain, R.; Oh, H.: On secure and privacy-aware Sybil attack detection in vehicular communications. Wireless Pers. Commun. 77(4), 2649–2673 (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  109. Verma, K.; Hasbullah, H.; Kumar, A.: Prevention of dos attacks in VANET. Wirel. Pers. Commun. 73(1), 95–126 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  110. He, L.; Zhu, W.T.: Mitigating DoS attacks against signature-based authentication in VANETs. In: IEEE International Conference on Computer Science and Automation Engineering (CSAE) vol. 3, pp. 261–265 (2012)

  111. Hussain, R.; Abbas, F.; Son, J.; Kim, D.; Kim, S.; Oh, H.: Vehicle witnesses as a service: leveraging vehicles as witnesses on the road in VANET clouds. In: The 5th International Conference on Cloud Computing Technology and Science (CloudCom), vol. 1, pp. 439–444. IEEE (2013)

  112. Zhang, Y.; Juels, A.; Oprea, A.; Reiter, M.K.: Homealone: Co-residency detection in the cloud via side-channel analysis. In: Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP), pp. 313–328. IEEE (2011)

  113. Shea, R.; Liu, J.: Understanding the impact of denial of service attacks on virtual machines. In: Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE 20th International Workshop on Quality of Service, pp 1–9. IEEE (2012)

  114. Liu, H.: A new form of dos attack in a cloud and its avoidance mechanism. In: Proceedings of the 2010 ACM Workshop on Cloud Computing Security Workshop, pp. 65–76. ACM (2010)

  115. Zhang, C.; Lu, R.; Lin, X.; Ho, P.H.; Shen, X.: An efficient identity-based batch verification scheme for vehicular sensor networks. In: The 27th Conference on Computer Communications, INFOCOM 2008, pp. 246–250. IEEE (2008)

  116. Chen, C.; Wang, X.; Han, W.; Zang, B.: A robust detection of the Sybil attack in urban VANETs. In: The 29th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems Workshops. ICDCS Workshops, pp. 270–276. IEEE (2009)

  117. Yu, B.; Xu, C.Z.; Xiao, B.: Detecting Sybil attacks in VANETs. J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 73(6), 746–756 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Saad Harous.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Goumidi, H., Aliouat, Z. & Harous, S. Vehicular Cloud Computing Security: A Survey. Arab J Sci Eng 45, 2473–2499 (2020).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Cloud computing
  • Vehicular cloud computing
  • Security
  • Privacy