Study of Spark-Ignition Engine Fueled with Hydrogen Produced by the Reaction Between Aluminum and Water in Presence of KOH

  • Mohamed Brayek
  • Mohamed Ali Jemni
  • Zied Driss
  • Gueorgui Kantchev
  • Mohamed Salah Abid
Research Article - Mechanical Engineering
  • 8 Downloads

Abstract

Hydrogen is seen as one of the important energy vectors of the century. There are several alternatives procedures to produce it in high purity; aluminum corrosion could be considered as one of the most attractive ones. The use of hydrogen derived with this process in spark-ignition engines forms a promising approach to decarbonize hydrogen production and secure domestic energy supply. This study describes the development of an experimental setup for hydrogen production and testing a SI engine in the hydrogen-fueled mode. This paper investigates the effect of aluminum thickness (specific surface) and alkali concentration on the reaction rate. The experimental results show that an increase in alkali concentration and a reduction in aluminum thickness increase hydrogen production rate. The produced hydrogen was used as fuel for a single-cylinder spark-ignition engine. The experiments were conducted under various engine speeds. It is found that hydrogen combustion produces a lower exhaust gas temperature than gasoline, although \(\hbox {NO}_{{x}}\) emissions decrease about 11 times compared to gasoline. It was expected that CO, \(\hbox {CO}_{2}\) and HC levels are zero when the engine is supplied with hydrogen, but it is found that there is a slight trace of CO, \(\hbox {CO}_{2}\) and HC due to combustion and evaporation of lubricant on cylinder walls.

Keywords

Aluminum Engine performance Hydrogen Pollutant concentrations SI engine 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Middleton, P.; Larson, R.; Nicklas, M.; Collins, B.: Renewable Hydrogen Forum: A Summary of Expert Opinion and Policy Recommendations. American Solar Energy Society, Washington (2003)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Uehara, K.; Takeshita, H.; Kotaka, H.: Hydrogen gas generation in the wet cutting of aluminium and its alloys. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 127(2), 174–7 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ilyin, A.P.; Gromov, A.A.; Reshetov, A.A.; Tihonov, D.V.; Yablunowsky, G.V.: Reactionary ability of aluminum ultrafine powders in various oxidation processes. In: The 4th Russian–Korean International Symposium on Science and Technology KORUS Proc. 3, pp. 299–304 (2000)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ivanov, V.G.; Safronov, M.N.; Gavrilyuk, O.V.: Macrokinetics of oxidation of ultra-disperse aluminum by water in the liquid phase. Combust. Explos. Shock Waves 37(2), 173–7 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lemieux, E.; Hartt, W.H.; Lucas, K.E.: Critical review of aluminum anode activation, dissolution mechanisms, and performance. Corrosion 18, 11–6 (2001)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tang, Y.; Lu, L.; Roesky, H.W.; Wang, L.; Huang, B.: The effect of zinc on the aluminum anode of the aluminum-air battery. J. Power Sources 138, 313–8 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Abedin, S.Z.; Enders, F.: Electrochemical behaviour of Al, Al–In and Al–Ga–In alloys in chloride solutions containing zinc ions. J. Appl. Electro Chem. 34(10), 1071–80 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bessone, J.B.; Flamini, D.O.; Saidman, S.B.: Comprehensive model for the activation mechanism of Al–Zn alloys produced by indium. Corros. Sci. 47(1), 95–105 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bessone, J.B.: The activation of aluminium by mercury ions in non-aggressive media. Corros. Sci. 48(12), 4243–56 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Flamini, D.O.; Saidman, S.B.; Bessone, J.B.: Aluminium activation produced by gallium. Corros. Sci. 48(6), 1413–25 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kravchenko, O.V.; Semenenko, K.N.; Bulychev, B.M.; Kalmykov, K.B.: Activation of aluminum metal and its reaction with water. J. Alloys Compd. 397(1), 58–62 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fan, M.Q.; Xu, F.; Sun, L.X.: Studies on hydrogen generation characteristics of hydrolysis of the ball milling Al-based materials in pure water. Int. J. Hydrog. Energy 32(14), 2809–15 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Peavey, M.A.: Fuel from Water: Energy Independence with Hydrogen, 8th edn. Merit, Inc., Louisville (2003)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Soler, L.; Candela, A.M.; Macanás, J.; Munoz, M.; Casado, J.: In situ generation of hydrogen from water by aluminumcorrosion in solutions of sodium aluminate. J. Power Sources 192(1), 21–26 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Andersen, E.R.; Andersen. E.J.: Method for producing hydrogen, US Patent 6506360 (2003).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Escalante Soberanis, M.A.; Fernandez, A.M.: A review on the technical adaptations for internal combustion engines to operate with gas/hydrogen mixtures. Int. J. Hydrog. Energy 35(21), 12134–12140 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kahraman, E.: Analysis of a hydrogen fueled internal combustion engine master of science in Energy Engineering. İzmir Institute of Technology İZMİR. (2005).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nieminen, J.; D’Souza, N.; Dincer, I.: Comparative combustion characteristics of gasoline and hydrogen fuelled ICEs. Int. J. Hydrog. Energy 35(10), 5114–5123 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hari Ganesh, R.; Subramanian, V.; Balasubramanian, V.; Mallikarjuna, J.M.; Ramesh, A.; Sharma, R.P.: Hydrogen fueled spark ignition engine with electronically controlled manifold injection: an experimental study. Renew. Energy 33(6), 1324–1333 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Szwaja, S.; Bhandary, K.R.; Naber, J.D.: Comparisons of hydrogen and gasoline combustion knock in a spark ignition engine. Int. J. Hydrog. Energy 32(18), 5076–5087 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Khajuria, P.R.; Mathur, H.B.: A computer simulation of hydrogen fuelled spark ignition engine. Int. J. Hydrog. Energy 2(6), 409–417 (1986)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Verhelst, S.; Sierens, R.: Hydrogen engine-specific properties. Int. J. Hydrog. Energy 26(9), 987–990 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kim, Y.Y.; Lee, J.T.; Choi, G.H.: An investigation on the causes of cycle variation in direct injection hydrogen fueled engines. Int. J. Hydrog. Energy 30(1), 69–76 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Trijselaar, A.: Knock prediction in gas-fired reciprocating engine: development of a zero-dimensional two zone model including detailed chemical kinetics. University of Twente, Faculty of engineering technology department of thermal engineering (2012)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Verhelst, S.; Wallner, T.: Hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines. Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 35(6), 490–527 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sáinz, D.; Diéguez, P.M.; Sopena, C.; Urroz, J.C.; Gandía, L.M.: Conversion of a commercial gasoline vehicle to run bi-fuel (hydrogen–gasoline). Int. J. Hydrog. Energy 37(2), 1781–1789 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Heywood, J.B.: Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals. McGraw-Hill, Maidenherd (1988)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Das, L.M.; Gulati, R.; Gupta, P.K.: Performance evaluation of a hydrogen-fuelled spark ignition engine using electronically controlled solenoid-actuated injection system. Int. J. Hydrog. Energy 25(6), 569–579 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    White, C.M.; Steeper, R.R.; Lutz, A.E.: The hydrogen-fuel internal combustion engine: a technical review. Int. J. Hydrog. Energy 31(10), 1292–305 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Brayek, M.; Jemni, M.A.; Kantchev, G.; Abid, M.S.: Effect of hydrogen–oxygen mixture addition on exhaust emissions and performance of a spark ignition engine. Arab. J. Sci. Eng. 41(11), 4635–4642 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Belitskus, D.: Reaction of aluminum with sodium hydroxide solution as a source of hydrogen. J. Electrochem. Soc. 117(8), 1097–1099 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohamed Brayek
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mohamed Ali Jemni
    • 1
  • Zied Driss
    • 1
  • Gueorgui Kantchev
    • 1
  • Mohamed Salah Abid
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Electro-Mechanic Systems (LASEM), National School of Engineers of Sfax (ENIS)University of SfaxSfaxTunisia
  2. 2.Mechanical Department, Wadi Ad-Dawasir College of TechnologyTechnical and Vocational Training CorporationRiyadhSaudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations