Skip to main content

An Intelligent System for Vehicle Access Control using RFID and ALPR Technologies

Abstract

This paper introduces a hybrid system for vehicle access control using RFID and automatic license plate recognition (ALPR) technologies. RFID technology is proven to provide an effective solution to different tracking and localization problems. However, the technology has its shortcomings in tracking objects/users without a tag. As such, we propose to complement this technology with ALPR to control the access of different types of vehicles to the area of Makkah (Saudi Arabia) during Pilgrimage seasons. This limited area can easily get congested with the huge number of vehicles attempting access. Before the start of the season, vehicles authorized to access the region are assigned passive RFID tags specifying their allowed schedule of entry. Violating vehicles that do not have RFID tags are detected and identified using ALPR. The developed system was tested over two pilgrimage seasons. The experiments showed that the developed RFID system was able to identify all passing vehicles with speeds up to 100 km/h, while the ALPR system achieved 94 % recognition accuracy of vehicles not equipped with RFID tags.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. 1

    Finkenzeller K.: RFID Handbook: Fundamental and Applications in Contactless Smart Cards, Radio Frequency Identification and Near-Field Communication. Wiley, New York (2010)

    Book  Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    Glover B., Bhatt H.: RFID Essential. O’Reilly, Beijing (2006)

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    Preradovic, S.; Karmakar, N.C.: Design of short range chipless RFID reader prototype. In: The 5th International Conference on Intelligent Sensors, Sensor Networks and Information Processing (ISSNIP), pp. 307–312. Melbourne, Australia (2009)

  4. 4

    Pandit, A.A.; Talreja, J.; Mundra, A.K.: RFID tracking system for vehicles (RTSV). In: Proceedings of First International Conference on Computational Intelligence, Communication Systems and Networks, pp. 160–165. IEEE (2009)

  5. 5

    Hannan, M.A.; Mustapha, A.M.; Hussain, A.; Basri, H.: Intelligent bus monitoring and management system. In: Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science, vol II. WCECS 2012, San Francisco, USA (2012)

  6. 6

    Lin-ying, J.; Shuai, W.; Heng, Z.; Han-qing, T.: Improved design of vehicle management system based on RFID. In: International Conference on Intelligent System Design and Engineering Application (ISDEA), vol. 1, pp. 844–847 (2010)

  7. 7

    Isasi, A.; Rodriguez, S.; Armentia, J.L.D.; Villodas, A.: Location, Tracking and Identification with RFID and Vision Data Fusion, 2010 European Workshop on Smart Objects: Systems, Technologies and Applications (RFID Sys Tech), pp. 1–6 (2010)

  8. 8

    Makarov, A.; Španović, M.; Lukić, V.: Authenticating vehicles and drivers in motion based on computer vision and RFID tags. In: IEEE 10th Jubilee International Symposium On Intelligent Systems and Informatics, Subotica, Serbia (2012)

  9. 9

    Almanza-Ojeda, D.L.; Hernández-Gutiérrez, A.; Ibarra-Manzano, M.A.: Design and Implementation of a Vehicular Access Control Using RFID, MEP Conference, México (2006)

  10. 10

    Fan, X.; Zhang, Y.: A design of bi-verification vehicle access intelligent control system based On RFID. In: The Ninth International Conference On Electronic Measurement & Instruments ICEMI (2009)

  11. 11

    Foina, A.G.; Barbin, S.E.; Ramirez, F.J.: A new approach for vehicle access control using active RFID tags. In: IEEE MTT-S International Conference on Microwave and Optoelectronics, IMOC 2007, pp. 90–93 (2007)

  12. 12

    Ahmed, M.J.; Sarfraz, M.; Zidouri, A.; Al-Khatib, W.: License plate recognition system. In: Proceedings of the 10th IEEE International Conference Electronics, Circuits and Systems, vol. 2, pp. 898–901 (2003)

  13. 13

    ANPR Cameras. http://www.arhungary.hu/contleft/1052/content.html. Accessed Oct 2015

  14. 14

    Park S.H., Kim K.I., Jung K., Kim H.J.: Locating car license plates using neural network. Electron. Lett. 35(17), 1475–1477 (1999)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15

    Zhang, Z.; Yin, S.: Hough transform and its application in vehicle license plate tilt correction. Comput. Inform. Sci. 1(3), 116–119 (2008)

  16. 16

    Hontani, H.; Koga, T.: Character extraction method without prior knowledge on size and information. In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Vehicle Electronics Conference (IVEC’01), pp. 67–72 (2001)

  17. 17

    Anagnostopoulos C.N.E., Anagnostopoulos I.E., Psoroulas I.D., Loumos V., Kayafas E.: License plate recognition from still images and video sequences: a survey. IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst. 9(3), 377–391 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18

    Patel, C.: Shah, D.; Patel, A.: Automatic number plate recognition system (ANPR): a survey. Int. J. Comput. Appl. (0975–8887) 69(9), 21–33 (2013)

  19. 19

    Shan D., Ibrahim M., Shehata M., Badawy W.: Automatic license plate recognition (ALPR): a state-of-the-art review. IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 23(2), 311–325 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20

    Sharifi H., Shahbahrami A.: An evaluation of license plate recognition algorithms. SDIWC Int. J. Digit. Inform. Wirel. Commun. 1(1), 247–253 (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21

    Sedighi A., Vafadust M.: A new and robust method for character segmentation and recognition in license plate images. Expert Syst. Appl. 38(11), 13497–13504 (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22

    Erdinc Kocer H., Kursat Cevik K.: Artificial neural networks based vehicle license plate recognition. Proc. Comput. Sci. 3, 1033–1037 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23

    White paper RFID high speed. http://www.harting-rfid.com/ fileadmin/harting/documents/rfid/aktuelles/fachartikel/Whitepaper_RFID_highspeed_HARTING.pdf. Accessed Oct 2015

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to M. Mohandes.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Mohandes, M., Deriche, M., Ahmadi, H. et al. An Intelligent System for Vehicle Access Control using RFID and ALPR Technologies. Arab J Sci Eng 41, 3521–3530 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13369-016-2136-0

Download citation

Keywords

  • RFID
  • Arabic characters
  • License plate recognition
  • Vehicle access control
  • Pilgrimage
  • Hajj