Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering

, Volume 38, Issue 8, pp 1959–1971 | Cite as

Implications of Climate Change on Water Resources in Saudi Arabia

Research Article - Civil Engineering

Abstract

Effects of climate change on water resources in Saudi Arabia were investigated. Changes of precipitation, temperature, relative humidity and wind speed were predicted. Net solar radiation was estimated from solar radiation monitoring stations. Changes in reference evapotranspiration (ETo) were estimated using Penman–Monteith approach. The estimations were performed for 49 grids (2.5° Latitude × 3.75° Longitude) covering Saudi Arabia (Latitude: 16.5 ° N–32.5 ° N; Longitude: 33.75 ° E–56.25 ° E). The averages of ETo were estimated to be 0.245 and 0.368 m/year (0.343–0.394 m/year) in the year 2011 and 2050, respectively. The rates of ETo were predicted to be higher in the Southern part than the Northern part of the country. The difference between ETo and precipitation indicates that there may be a loss of soil moisture by 0.181 m/year (0.042–0.236 m/year) during the period of 2011 through 2050. Increase in temperature was estimated to be 1.8–4.1 °C, which can increase agricultural water demands by 5–15 % to obtain the current level of agricultural productions. This study anticipates significant reductions in water sources, which can impose further stress on agriculture and drinking water sources. Deterioration of source water quality is also expected. This study sheds light on the need for appropriate measures to protect water resources in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords

Effects of climatic change Evapotranspiration Global warming Water resources Water quality Agricultural water demands 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Abderrahman, W.A.: Water demand management in Saudi Arabia. In: Farukui N.I.; Biswas A.K.; Bino M.J. (eds.). Water Management in Islam, The International Development Research Centre (IDRC), pp. 68–78 (2001)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    SAMA (Saudi Arabia Monetary Agency): Annual Report 2002 (2002)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Elhadj, E.: Household water and sanitation services in Saudi Arabia: an analysis of economic, political and ecological issues. SOAS Water Research Group, Occasional Paper 56 (2004)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chowdhury, S.; Champagne, P.: Use of treated wastewater: evaluation of wastewater minimization strategies using fuzzy technique. In: Proceedings of the Conference on Advanced Technology in the Environmental Field (ATEF), Spain, February 6–8 (2006)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Shareef, M.M.; Al-Zahrani, M.A.; Al-Layla, R.: Multi-Objective Water Resources Planning With Uncertainties: Model Development and Application, Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran, 31261, Saudi Arabia (2005)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Earth Trends: Water resources and freshwater ecosystems. Available at: http://earthtrends.wri.org (2003)
  7. 7.
    Abderrahman, W.A.; Al-Harazin, I.M.: Assessment of climate changes on water resources in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, GCC Environment and Sustainable Development Symposium, 28–30 January 2008, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, pp D-1-1–D-1-13 (2008)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Al-Zawad, F.M.: Impacts of climate change on water resources in Saudi Arabia. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Water Resources and Arid Environments and the 1st Arab Water Forum (2008)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). Data Distribution Centre: http://www.mad.zmaw.de/IPCC_DDC/html/SRES_TAR/index.htmlSRES_TAR/index.html [Accessed: Nov, 2010] (2006)
  10. 10.
    Watson, R.J.; McMichael, A.J.: Global climate change—the latest assessment: does global warming warrant a health warning? Global Change Human Health 2, 64–75 (2001)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Brohan P., Kennedy J., Harris I., Tett S., Jones P.: Uncertainty estimates in regional and global observed temperature changes: a new dataset from 1850. J. Geophys. Res. 111, D12106 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    World Health Organization.: Climate Change and Human Health—Risk and Responses, WHO Summary Report (2002)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Patz J.A., Lendrum D.C., Holloway T., Foley J.A.: Impact of regional climate change on human health. Nature 438, 310–317 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rajab, R.; Prudhomme, C.: Climate Change on Water Resources Management in Arid and Semi-arid Regions: Prospective and Challenges for the 21st Century, Biosystems Engineering 81(1), 3–34 (2002)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Husain, T.; Chaudhary, J.: Human Health Risk assessment due to Global warming—a case study of gulf countries, The First International Conference of the State of the Gulf Ecosystem: Future and Threats. March 05–07, Al-Ain (2006)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    UNOCHA (United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs): Climatic change and human vulnerability, Vol. II, Zeneva, Switzerland (2008)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Allen, R.G.; Pereira, L.S.; Raes, D.; Smith, M.: Crop evapotranspiration - Guidelines for computing crop water requirements - FAO Irrigation and drainage paper 56. FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (1998)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tao, F.; Hayashi, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Sakamoto, T.; Yokozawa, M.: Global warming, rice production, and water use in China: Developing a probabilistic assessment. Agricultural and forest meteorology, AGMAT-3787 (2007)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bates, B.C; Kundzewicz, Z.W.; Wu, S., Palutikof, J.P.: Climate change and water. Geneva Technical paper of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change. IPCC Secretariat (2008)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rahman S.: Solar radiation over Saudi Arabia and comparisons with empirical models. Energy 23(12), 1077–1082 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    MAW (Ministry of Agriculture and Water).: Agricultural statistical year book. Department of Economic Studies and Statics. 14th Issue, Ministry of Agriculture and Water (MAW), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (2002)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Alkolibi, F.M.: Possible effects of global warming on agriculture and Water resources in Saudi Arabia: impacts and responses. Clim. Change 54, 225–245 (2002)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Subyani A.M.: Hydrochemical identification and salinity problem of ground water in Wadi Yalamlam basin, Western Saudi Arabia. J. Arid Environ. 60, 53–66 (2005)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Alhumoud J.M., Behbehani H.S., Abdullah T.H.: Wastewater Reuse Practices in Kuwait. Environ. 23, 117–126 (2003)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    BAAC (British Arabian Advisory Committee), Water resources of Saudi Arabia. Vol. 1, Prepared for the Ministry for Agriculture and Water, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (1980)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    MAW (Ministry of Agriculture and Water). Water Atlas of Saudi Arabia, Department of Water Resources Development, Ministry of Agriculture and Water (MAW), Saudi Arabia (1984)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Al-Alawi, M.; Abdulrazzak, M.: Water in the Arabian Peninsula: Problems and perspectives. In: Rogers, P., Lydon, P. (eds.), Water in the Arab World: Perspectives and progress, Division of Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge (1994)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hartig, E.K.; Grozev, O.; Rosenzweig, C.: Climate Change, Agriculture and Wetlands in Eastern Europe: Vulnerability, Adoption and Policy. Climate Change 46, 101–121 (1997)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    El-shaer H.M., Rosenzweig C., Iglesias A., Eid M.H., Hillel D.: Impact of climate change on possible scenarios for Egyptian agriculture in the future. Mitig. Adapt. Strat. Global Change 1, 233–250 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations): Available at: http://faostat.fao.org/site/339/default.aspx (2010)
  31. 31.
    Parry, M.L.; Swaminathan, M.S.: Effect of climatic change on food production. In: Mintzer, I.M. (eds.), Confronting Climatic Change: Risks, Implications, and Responses, Chapter 8, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1993)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Doorenbos, J.; Kassam A.H.: Yield response to water. FAO irrigation and drainage paper no. 33. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (1986)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Parry, M. L.; Rosenzweig, C.; Iglesias, A.; Fischer, G.; Livermore, M.: Climate Change and World Food Security: A New Assessment. Global Environ. Change 9, S51–S67 (1999)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Delpla I.; Jung A.V.; Baures E.; Clement M.; Thomas O.: Impacts of climate change on surface water quality in relation to drinking water production. Env. Int. 35, 1225–1233 (2009)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Prathumratana, L.; Sthiannopkao, S.; Kim, K.W.: The relationship of climatic and hydrologic parameters to surface water quality in the lower Mekong river. Env. Int. 34, 860–866 (2008)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hejzlar J., Dubrovsky M., Buchtele J., Ruzicka M.: The apparent and potential effects of climate change on the inferred concentration of dissolved organic matter in a temperate system (the Malse River, South Bohemia). Sci. Total Environ. 310, 143–152 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Evans, C.D.; Monteith, D.T.; Cooper, D.M.: Long term increases in surface water dissolved organic carbon: observations, possible causes and environmental impacts. Env. Poll. 137, 55–71 (2005)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chowdhury, S.; Champagne, P.; McLellan, P. J.: Models for predicting disinfection byproducts (DBPs) formation in drinking waters: A chronological review. Sci. of the Total Environment 407(14): 4189–4206 (2009)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Chowdhury, S.; Champagne, P.; McLellan P.J.: Investigating effects of bromide ions on trihalomethanes and developing model for predicting bromodichloromethane in drinking water. Water Research 44(7), 2349–2359 (2010)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Richardson, S.D.; Plewa, M.J.; Wagner, E.D.; Schoeny, R.; DeMarini, D.M.: Occurrence, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity of regulated and emerging disinfection by-products in drinking water: A review and roadmap for research. Mut. Res. 636, 178–242 (2007)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ducharne A., Baubion C., Beaudoin N., Benoit M., Billen G., Brisson N.: Long term prospective of the Seine river system: confronting climatic and direct anthropogenic changes. Sci. Total Environ. 375, 292–311 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wilby, R.L.; Whitehead, P.G.; Wade A.J.; Butterfield D.; Davis R.J.; Watts, G.: Integrated modeling of climatic change impacts on water resources and quality in a lowland catchment: River Kinnet, UK. J. Hydrology 330, 204–220 (2006)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Petterson, K.; Grust K.; Weyhenmeyer, G.; Blenckner, T.: Seasonality of chlorophyll and nutrients in Lake Erken-effects of weather conditions. Hydrologia 506–509, 75–81 (2003)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    CIA Fact Book: Available at: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/publications/the-world-factbook/ (accessed on Sept 20, 2011)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Health Canada.: Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality, Prepared by the Federal-Provincial-Territorial Committee on Health and the Environment (2008)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency): National primary drinking water regulations: stage 2 disinfectants and disinfection byproducts rule: final rule. Federal Reg. 71 (2) (2006)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Chowdhury S, Champagne P.: Risk from exposure to trihalomethanes during shower: Probabilistic assessment and control. Sci. Total Env. 407, 1570–1578 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    P. Mallika, P.; Sarisak, S.; Pongsri, P.: Cancer risk assessment from exposure to trihalomethanes in tap water and swimming pool water Journal of Environmental Sciences. 20, 372–378 (2008)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change): Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Core Writing Team, Pachauri, R.K., Reisinger, A. (eds.), IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland. p. 104 (2007)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Water Research GroupKing Fahd University of Petroleum and MineralsDhahranSaudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations