Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering

, Volume 37, Issue 6, pp 1535–1546

Prediction of Swelling Potential and Pressure in Compacted Clay

  • Ömür Çimen
  • S. Nilay Keskin
  • Hüseyin Yıldırım
Research Article - Civil Engineering


In this study to predict free swelling potential and pressure in compacted clay, simple relationships are proposed. Three different clay samples were prepared with initially at constant dry unit weight and varying water contents and at constant water content and varying dry unit weights by standard compaction. In the experiment part, the free swelling technique was used. Values of free swelling potential and pressure were measured using the oedometer analysis. Analyses were repeated at least two times. To predict free swelling potential and pressure, the multiple regression analyses were performed for the different values of dry unit weight, initial water content and plasticity index of three samples. The proposed relationships and the equations in the literature were compared with the test results of these samples in optimum water content and maximum dry unit weight and of another compacted sample for the known values of the dry unit weight, initial water content, and plasticity index. The comparison was also done with a relation given in the literature. The results found that the estimated values of swelling potential and pressure obtained from the proposed relationships were in consistent with the measured ones.


Swelling Compacted clay Soil Prediction Regression 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Aitchison, G.: Status of the art of dealing with world problems on expansive clay soils. In: Engineering Effects of Moisture Changes in Soils. International Research and Engineering Conference on Expansive Soils, pp. 1–6 (1965)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dhowian, A.; Ruwaih, I.; Erol, A.: The distribution and evaluation of the expansive soils in Saudi Arabia. In: Proceedings of Second Saudi Engineering Conference King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, vol. 4, pp. 1969–1990 (1985)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Abduljauwad, S.N.; Hameed, R.A.; Al-Sulaimani, G.J.; Basunbul, I.A.; Safar, M.M.: Expansive soils in eastern province of Saudi Arabia. In: Proceedings of Seventy International Conference on Expansive Soils, Dallas, vol. 1, pp. 426–431 (1992)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jones D.E., Holtz W.G.: Expansive soils–the hidden disaster. Civil Eng. 43(8), 49–51 (1973)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Al-Shamrani M.A., Dhowian A.W.: Experimental study of lateral restraint effects on the potential heave of expansive soils. Eng. Geol. 69, 63–81 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Komine H., Ogata N.: Experimental study on swelling characteristics of compacted bentonite. Can. Geotech. J. 31, 478–490 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Al-Mhaidib A.I.: Swelling Behaviour of Expansive Shales from the Middle Region of Saudi Arabia. Geotech. Geol. Eng. 16, 291–307 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chen F.H.: Foundations on expansive soil. Elsevier, New York (1988)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tuncer, E.R.; Basma, A.A.; Taqeddin, S.: Geotechnical engineering properties of some selected irbid clays. Jordan University of Science and Technology, Research Report No. 14/87 (1987)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shi B., Jiang H., Liu Z., Fang H.Y.: Engineering geological characteristics of expansive soils in China. Eng. Geol. 67, 63–71 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Li S.L., Qin S.J., Bo Z.Z., Shi B.: Studies on the Engineering Geology of Expansive Soils in China. Jiangsu Science and Technology Publishing House, Nanjing (1992)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dhowian, A.W.; Erol, A.O.; Youssef, A.: Evaluation of Expansive Soils and Foundation Methodology in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia, Final Report: SANCST, AT-5–88 (1985)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    ASTM.: Standard Test Method for One-Dimensional Swell or Settlement Potential of Cohesive Soils. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, D 4546-90, 04.08: 853–859 (1993)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rahimi H., Baroothoob S.H.: Concrete Canal Lining Cracking in Low to Medium Plastic Soils. Irrigat. Drainage 51, 141–153 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nelson J.D., Miller D.J.: Expansive Soils Problem and Practice in Foundation and Pavement Engineering. Wiley, London (1992)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    El-Sayed S.T., Rabbaa S.A.: Factors affecting behavior of expansive soils in the laboratory and field. Geotech. Eng. 17, 89–107 (1986)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Seed H.B., Woodward R.J., Lundgren R.: Prediction of swelling potential for compacted clays. J. Soil Mech. Found. Div., ASCE 88(6), 107–131 (1962)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dakshanamurthy V., Raman V.: A simple method of identifying an expansive soil. Soils Found. Jap. Soc. Soil Mech. Found. Eng. 13(1), 97–104 (1973)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mitchell J.K.: Fundamental of Soil Behavior. Wiley, New York (1993)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Snethen, D.R.: Evaluation of expedient methods for identification and classification of potentially expansive soils. In: Proceedings of Fifth International Conference on Expansive Soils, Institution of Engineers, Adelaide, pp. 22–26 (1984)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Erguler Z.A., Ulusay R.A.: A simple test and predictive models for assessing swell potential of Ankara (Turkey) clay. Eng. Geol. 67, 331–352 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    El-Sohby M.A., Rabba E.A.: Some factors affecting swelling of clayey soils. Geotech. Eng. 12, 19–39 (1981)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Holtz W.G., Gibbs H.J.: Engineering properties of expansive clays. Transact. Am. Soc. Civil Eng. 121, 641–677 (1956)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Noble C.A.: Swelling measurements and prediction of heave for a lacustrine clay. Can. Geotech. J. 3(1), 32–41 (1966)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Erol A.O., Dhowian A.: Swell behavior of arid climate shale from Saudi Arabia. Quat. J. Eng. Geol. 23, 243–254 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Erol, A.O.: In-situ and laboratory measured suction parameters for predictions of swelling. In: Proceeding of the Seventh International Conference on Expansive Soils Dallas, pp. 2–30 (1992)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Abduljawad S.N., Al-Sulaimani G.J.: Determination of swell potential of Al-Qatif clay. Geotech. Test. J. 16(6), 469–484 (1993)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sabtan A.A.: Geotechnical properties of expansive clay shale in Tabuk, Saudia Arabia. J. Asian Earth Sci. 25, 747–757 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Basma, A.A.: Prediction of expansion degree for natural compacted clays. Geotech. Test. J. 16(6), 542–549Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Erzin, Y.; Erol, O.: Correlations for quick prediction of swell pressures. Electron. J. Geotech. Eng. 9, paper 0476 (2004)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cokca E., Yazici V., Ozaydin V.: Stabilization of expansive clays using granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) and GBFS-cement. Geotech. Geol. Eng. 27(6), 489–499 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Siyahi, B.; Erdik, M.; Sesetyan, K.; Demircioglu, M.B.; Akman, H.: Liquefaction and slope failure susceptibility and opportunity maps: Istanbul case. In: Fifth National Conference on Earthquake Engineering Istanbul, AT-081 (2003)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
  34. 34.
  35. 35.
    Bozcu, M.; Uyanik, O.; Cakmak, O.; Turker, E.: Geotechnical properties of Esen I HEPP Project field. J. Nat. Appl. Sci. 11(1), 75–83 (in Turkish) (2007)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    ASTM.: Annual Book of ASTM Standards. Soil and Rock: 04.08 (1994)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fredlund D.G., Rahardjo H.: Soil mechanics for unsaturated soils. Wiley, New York (1983)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Nayak N.V., Christensen R.W.: Swelling characteristics of compacted expansive soils. Clay Clay Miner. 19(6), 251–261 (1979)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Komornik A., David D.: Prediction of swelling pressure of clays. J. Soil Mech. Found. Eng. Div. ASCE 95(1), 209–225 (1969)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Vijayvergia, V.N.; Sullivan, R.A.: Simple technique for identifying heave potential. In: Proceedings of Workshop on Expansive Clays and Shales, vol. 2, pp. 149–154 (1973)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Vijayvergia, V.N.; Ghazzly, O.I.: Prediction of swelling potential for natural clays. In: Third International Conference on Expansive Soils, vol. 1, pp. 227–236 (1973)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Schneider, G.L.; Poor, A.R.: The Prediction of Soil Heave and Swell Pressures Developed by an Expansive Clay. Contraction Research Center, University of Texas, Research Report TR-9-74 (1974)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Johnson, L.D.: Predicting Potential Heave and Heave with Time in Swelling Foundation Soils. USAWES, Technical Report S-78-7 (1978)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Weston, D.J.: Expansive Roadbed Treatment for Southern Africa. In: Proceedings of Fourth International Conference on Expansive Soils, pp. 339–360 (1980)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Çimen, Ö.: Determination of Swelling and Suction Properties of Clay Soils with Fuzzy Logic. PhD Thesis, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta, 2002, (in Turkish)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ömür Çimen
    • 1
  • S. Nilay Keskin
    • 1
  • Hüseyin Yıldırım
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Engineering-Architecture, Department of Civil EngineeringSuleyman Demirel UniversityIspartaTurkey
  2. 2.Faculty of Civil EngineeringIstanbul Technical UniversityIstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations