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Brain structural and functional recovery following initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy


NeuroAIDS persists in the era of combination antiretroviral therapies. We describe here the recovery of brain structure and function following 6 months of therapy in a treatment-naive patient presenting with HIV-associated dementia. The patient’s neuropsychological test performance improved and his total brain volume increased by more than 5 %. Neuronal functional connectivity measured by magnetoencephalography changed from a pattern identical to that observed in other HIV-infected individuals to one that was indistinguishable from that of uninfected control subjects. These data suggest that at least some of the effects of HIV on the brain can be fully reversed with treatment.

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This work was supported in part by funds from the National Institute of Mental Health (R03-MH081721). The sponsor had no role in the design, analysis, or interpretation of this study. The authors are grateful to D. Martineck and L. Teverovsky for their assistance with this research.

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Correspondence to James T. Becker.

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Becker, J.T., Cuesta, P., Fabrizio, M. et al. Brain structural and functional recovery following initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy. J. Neurovirol. 18, 423–427 (2012).

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  • HIV disease
  • NeuroAIDS
  • Magnetoencephalography
  • Functional connectivity