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Reducing identification errors of African carnivores from photographs through computer-assisted workflow

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Precise and accurate estimates of population size are fundamental to the study and conservation of wildlife. Identification of individual animals is often required to obtain such estimates, yet manual classifications by human observers induce bias, which can propagate across long-term datasets or large spatial scales. Pattern recognition algorithms have been developed to aid identification efforts and here, we demonstrate the efficacy of this technology to reduce misidentifications of African large carnivores in historic data. We used a 7-year camera-trapping dataset from north-central Namibia and revised cheetah and leopard individuals identified by human observers through a pattern recognition algorithm, HotSpotter, implemented in a web-based and open-source application, the African Carnivore Wildbook (ACW). Verification of individuals with ACW resulted in a reduction from 43 to 40 cheetah individuals and from 59 to 46 leopard individuals. This is equivalent to a difference of 7% and 22% of individuals identified for cheetahs and leopards, respectively. Additionally, this revision increased the proportion of individuals that were detected over multiple years and at multiple locations. Our findings may have implications for population and trend estimates of these and other species, given that current estimates often rely on manual identification that could overestimate population size.

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Fig. 1

Data availability

The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.


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We thank Cheetah Conservation Fund staff and volunteers who contributed to the data collection. We thank Tech 4 Conservation (, Botswana Predator Conservation (, and Wild Me ( for the development of the ACW.


Fieldwork was supported by Cheetah Conservation Fund donors. ACW was funded by Microsoft for Startups grant provided to Wild Me.

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Correspondence to Stijn Verschueren.

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Communicated by Dries Kuijper

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Verschueren, S., Fabiano, E.C., Kakove, M. et al. Reducing identification errors of African carnivores from photographs through computer-assisted workflow. Mamm Res 68, 121–125 (2023).

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