The development of increasingly affordable ultrasonic detectors and automatic classifiers has increasingly boosted the use of acoustic recording of echolocation calls to survey bats all over the world. Echolocation call keys are crucial to reliably classify acoustic recordings, but those are not available for many regions, such as China. In the present study, we conducted a systematic review of bat echolocation studies across continental China and developed an acoustic identification key. Based on 130 studies, published from 1999 to 2020, we obtained echolocation parameters from 64 bat species (47.4% of the total echolocating species known from the country). This review highlights the lack of echolocation references from continental China for 71 species, from which, the echolocation of 21 has never been described. Additionally, we developed the Bat Knowledge Index, an indicator that allows the identification of key priority areas for future research on bat acoustics and geographic biases in the existing studies, further highlighting the lack of studies in the northwestern regions of the country. The compiled identification key provides easy-to-follow identification steps to classify the echolocation calls of 114 species (84.5% of all Chinese echolocating species) to either species (11.4%) or phonic group level (88.6%). This key represents a useful baseline tool and a further step to increase bioacoustic studies’ suitability in China.
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We want to thank all the people behind the Bat Monitoring Program (www.batmonitoring.org) for their involvement in this study, especially Maria Mas Navarro, for helping with the final tables and Toni Arrizabalaga, Carles Flaquer and Xavier Puig-Montserrat for their support in the study. We also want to thank Anderson Feijó for his help with the data on China’s species distribution.
Availability of data and material
The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
The codes generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
No funding was received for conducting this study.
Conflicts of interest/Competing interests
The authors declare no competing interests.
The present review compiles the current knowledge on bat echolocation in mainland China and determines knowledge gaps in this field via a Bat Knowledge Index. Also, the first known acoustic identification key of the species from continental China is provided, allowing for the acoustic identification of 114 of 135 known echolocating bat species.
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The original online version of this article was revised: The data on Figure 5 was captured as part of the article text and should have has been removed. The article has been updated.
Communicated by: Zuzanna Hałat
Supplementary data SD1 List of papers obtained from the literature review.
Information extracted from each study obtained from the literature review. The species name corresponds to the latest accepted scientific name, while the one found in the reference literature is specified in the third column. The different parameters are pulse duration (Dur), frequency of maximum energy (FME), highest frequency (HF), lowest frequency (LF), start frequency (SF), end frequency (EF) and bandwidth (BW). Of these parameters, we show the mean ± standard deviation and minimum-maximum in parenthesis. Information on the detector used, the author (corresponding to the references listed in Supplementary data SD1), the publishing journal, the language in which the reference was written, the sex of the animal (if provided), the recording method, whether the reference was used for the identification key and the region where the animal was recorded is also provided. (XLSX 57 kb)
Information extracted from each reference included in the echolocation key from outside continental China. The species name corresponds to the latest accepted scientific name, while the one found in the reference literature is specified in the second column. The different parameters are pulse duration (Dur), frequency of maximum energy (FME), highest frequency (HF), lowest frequency (LF), start frequency (SF), end frequency (EF) and bandwidth (BW). Of these parameters, we show the mean ± standard deviation and minimum-maximum in parenthesis. Information on the detector used, the author (corresponding to the references listed in Supplementary data SD1), the title of the publication, the publishing journal, the recording method and the country where the animal was recorded is also provided. (XLSX 23 kb)
For each region, number of publications found, number of species covered by the publications, number of species known for the region and BKI score. (XLSX 11 kb)
Number of publications from continental China for each species recorded. Bold coloured species refer to species with no reference calls published (XLSX 11 kb)
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López-Bosch, D., Huang, J.CC., Wang, Y. et al. Bat echolocation in continental China: a systematic review and first acoustic identification key for the country. Mamm Res 66, 405–416 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13364-021-00570-x
- Acoustic monitoring
- Call parameters