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Metabolic cost of acute phase response in the frugivorous bat, Artibeus lituratus

  • Adriana L. Guerrero-Chacón
  • David Rivera-Ruíz
  • Vladimir Rojas-Díaz
  • Camila Triana-Llanos
  • Andrea Niño-Castro
Original Paper

Abstract

Bats play a key role as host for multiple microorganism and virus without showing clinical manifestations of disease. After recognition of a potential threat, innate immunity triggers acute phase response, a systemic reaction that contributes to restrain microbial and viral growth. APR is characterized by fever, leukocytosis, and production of acute phase proteins, but also by behavioral changes, including somnolence, lethargy, and anorexia. Deploying immune responses, such as acute phase response, represents an energetic cost for vertebrates. In bats, it has been suggested that higher metabolic rates reached during flight might subsidize any inherent cost of raising metabolism to activate an immune response. Therefore, a central question is whether immune response represents a significant cost to bats and, if so, how much is the metabolic cost of these responses. Here, we assess the resting metabolic rate of Artibeus lituratus in response to challenge with LPS. In addition, we assessed parameters of acute phase response including fever, body mass loss, and leukocytosis in this specie. We found that challenge with LPS leads to an increase of 40% in resting metabolic rate of A. lituratus, concomitant with body mass loss and an increase in body temperature of 1.5 °C.

Keywords

Artibeus lituratus Immune challenge Metabolic cost Bacterial lipopolysaccharide Acute phase response 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by Vicerrectoría de Investigación Universidad del Valle CI 71027 and Posgrado en Ciencias Biología Universidad del Valle. We thank Dr. Luis Gerardo Herrera Montalvo for his critical reading of the manuscript and Alexander Torres MSc for his valuable advice on statistical analysis of data.

Compliance with ethical standards

This study was carried out according to recommendations and permits approved by the Permiso Marco de Recolección granted to the Universidad del Valle (Resolución 1070 de la Autoridad Nacional de Licencias Ambientales). Experimental procedures were reviewed and approved by the institutional ethics board for flora and fauna research of Universidad Del Valle.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

13364_2018_375_MOESM2_ESM.docx (18 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 17 kb)
13364_2018_375_Fig5_ESM.gif (10 kb)
Supplementary fig. 1

The body mass of A. lituratus varies less than 10% during captivity. A. Percentage of body mass variation during captivity in individuals treated with LPS (n = 10). B. Percentage of body mass variation during captivity in individuals treated with PBS (n = 11) (GIF 9 kb)

13364_2018_375_MOESM1_ESM.tif (4.5 mb)
High resolution image (TIF 4604 kb)

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Copyright information

© Mammal Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Białowieża, Poland 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adriana L. Guerrero-Chacón
    • 1
  • David Rivera-Ruíz
    • 1
  • Vladimir Rojas-Díaz
    • 2
  • Camila Triana-Llanos
    • 1
  • Andrea Niño-Castro
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratorio de Fisiología Animal, Departamento de BiologíaUniversidad del ValleCaliColombia
  2. 2.Wildlife Conservation SocietyCaliColombia

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