Invasive predators are responsible for the extinction of numerous island species worldwide. The naïve prey hypothesis suggests that the lack of co-evolutionary history between native prey and introduced predators results in the absence of behavioral responses to avoid predation. The lack of terrestrial mammal predators is a core feature of islands at the southern end of the Americas. Recently, however, the American mink (Neovison vison) established as a novel terrestrial predator, where rodents became a main portion of its diet. Here, we investigated on Navarino Island, Chile, macro- and micro-habitat selection of small rodents using Sherman traps. Additionally, we experimentally tested behavioral responses of small rodents to indirect cues of native raptorial predation risk (vegetation cover) and direct cues of novel mink predation risk (gland odor) using Sherman traps and foraging trays (giving-up density (GUD)). At the macro-habitat level, we detected native rodents of the species Abrothrix xanthorhinus and Oligoryzomys longicaudatus and the exotic Mus musculus. In general, rodents preferred scrubland habitats. At the micro-habitat level, we only captured individuals of A. xanthorhinus. They preferred covered habitats with tall vegetation. GUD increased in opened areas (riskier for raptorial predation) regardless of the presence or not of mink odor. These results suggest that A. xanthorhinus can perceive predation risk by raptors, but not by mink, results that accord with the hypothesis that co-evolutionary history is important for rodents to develop antipredator behavior. Given that these rodents represent an important proportion of mink diet, the low abundances together with the apparent lack of antipredator response raise conservation concerns for the small rodent populations inhabiting the southernmost island ecosystems of the Americas.
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We thank Matias Barceló, Nicolas Carro, Gabriel Gómez, Simón Castillo, and Omar Barroso for all field work help. We also thank Emiliano Donadio and two anonymous reviewers whose comments helped to improve earlier drafts of this manuscript.
This study was funded by the Toulouse Graduate School Program at the University of North Texas (UNT), Idea Wild, the Rufford Foundation, the Conservation Research and Education Opportunities International (CREOi), and the Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity of Chile (IEB; grants ICM P05-002 and Basal-CONICYT PFB-23). This study is a contribution of the Sub-Antarctic Biocultural Conservation Program, jointly coordinated by the UNT in the USA, and by the IEB and the Universidad de Magallanes in Chile.
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. All animal capture and handling procedures followed guidelines set by the American Society of Mammalogists (Sikes and Gannon 2011). Permits to capture rodents were given by the Livestock and Agricultural Bureau, Chile (Servicio Agrícola y Ganadero, Resolution Nos. 6518/2013 and 8547/2014).
Communicated by: Andrzej Zalewski
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Crego, R.D., Jiménez, J.E. & Rozzi, R. Macro- and micro-habitat selection of small rodents and their predation risk perception under a novel invasive predator at the southern end of the Americas. Mamm Res 63, 267–275 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13364-018-0361-5
- American mink
- Cape Horn
- Giving-up densities
- Habitat use
- Invasive species