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Status assessment of Eurasian lynx in Latvia linking genetics and demography—a growing population or a source–sink process?


The Eurasian lynx is managed as a game species in Latvia. A variety of demographic parameters were used to assess the current status of the Latvian lynx population and recruitment after annual harvest. Population age–gender structure and female prenatal fecundity were determined in 530 legally hunted animals over a 9-year period. Average prenatal fecundity was 3.2 ± 0.1, and evidence of reproduction was found in 87 % of the examined adult females. We found a disproportionally low number of 1- and 2-year-old lynx in the hunting bags and therefore constructed an age–gender pyramid, adjusting the survival curves to the proportions of the remaining age classes. Two hundred and eighty-eight tissue samples were analysed using 12 autosomal microsatellite loci. Groups of related individuals were identified using a group approach and supported by pairwise relationship analysis. Thirteen potential maternal–offspring relationship groups and 30 related groups of lynx individuals based on potential full-sib and half-sib relationships between the individuals within the research period were identified. Evidence from this study shows that the population is not only stable but also likely growing and that there currently appear to be no barriers preventing gene flow. We can conclude that, in general, the lynx population was sustainably maintained. The previous harvest intensity has not obstructed the conservation aim for lynx in Latvia, which is to maintain the population as stable or growing. Combining demographic and molecular analyses, this study reveals relevant reference indices that can be used in future monitoring of the lynx population in Latvia.

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We are grateful to all who provided us with the materials used in this study. We are grateful to Urmas Saarma for advice and guidance on the genetic aspects covered in this article. The study was supported and funded by the European Social Fund (project no. 2014/0002/1DP/ “Developing of genetic monitoring for wildlife in Latvia”.

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Correspondence to Guna Bagrade.

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Communicated by: Krzysztof Schmidt

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Bagrade, G., Ruņģis, D.E., Ornicāns, A. et al. Status assessment of Eurasian lynx in Latvia linking genetics and demography—a growing population or a source–sink process?. Mamm Res 61, 337–352 (2016).

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  • Lynx
  • Demography
  • Genetic variation
  • Population structure