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Lipid Alterations during Zebrafish Embryogenesis Revealed by Dynamic Mass Spectrometry Profiling with C=C Specificity

Abstract

Lipids exert substantial influences on vertebrate embryogenesis, but their metabolic dynamics at detailed structural levels remains elusive, primarily owing to the lack of a tool capable of resolving their huge structural diversity. Herein, we present the first large-scale and spatiotemporal monitoring of unsaturated lipids with C=C specificity in single developing zebrafish embryos enabled by photochemical derivatization and tandem mass spectrometry (MS). The lipid isomer composition was found extremely stable in yolk throughout embryogenesis, while notable differences in ratios of C=C location (e.g., PC 16:0_16:1 (7) vs. 16:0_16:1 (9)) and fatty acyl composition isomers (e.g., PC 16:1_18:1 vs. 16:0_18:2) were unveiled between blastomeres and yolk from zygote to 4 h post fertilization (hpf). From 24 hpf onwards, lipid isomer compositions in embryo head and tail evolved distinctively with development, suggesting a meticulously regulated lipid remodeling essential for cell division and differentiation. This work has laid the foundation for functional studies of structurally defined lipids in vertebrate embryology.

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Acknowledgements

We acknowledge Simin Cheng for her help on the LC-PB-MS/MS platform. This research was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants 21705091, 21621003, and 21727813) and the Ministry of Science and Technology of the People’s Republic of China (Grant 2016YFF0100301).

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Correspondence to Xiaoxiao Ma.

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Fish maintenance and embryo raising followed the ethical guidelines of the Tsinghua University Animal Care and Use Committee.

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The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

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Zhao, X., Chen, J., Zhang, W. et al. Lipid Alterations during Zebrafish Embryogenesis Revealed by Dynamic Mass Spectrometry Profiling with C=C Specificity. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 30, 2646–2654 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13361-019-02334-z

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Keywords

  • Zebrafish embryogenesis
  • Lipid remodeling
  • C=C location isomers
  • Mass spectrometry
  • Photochemical derivatization