Advertisement

Applied Entomology and Zoology

, Volume 50, Issue 1, pp 41–47 | Cite as

Adaptive significance of the mating of autumn-morph females with non-overwintering summer-morph males in the Japanese Common Grass Yellow, Eurema mandarina (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)

  • Tatsuro Konagaya
  • Mamoru WatanabeEmail author
Original Research Paper

Abstract

Autumn-morph adults of the Japanese Common Grass Yellow, Eurema mandarina (de l’Orza), overwinter with reproductive diapause, while the summer-morph adults do not. A low temperature and short photoperiod induce autumn-morph adults. Because of different critical photoperiods between the sexes, the summer-morph males coexist with the autumn-morph adults in late autumn. While autumn-morph males show little mating activity, mating between summer-morph males and autumn-morph females frequently occurs. Thereafter, mated autumn-morph females re-mate with autumn-morph males the following spring. Two hypotheses, a nuptial gift hypothesis and a risk-hedge hypothesis, explaining the adaptive significance of pre-overwinter copulation by autumn-morph females were examined. Wild autumn-morph females were collected in November, late March, April and early May. The decrease in the number of eggs contained in autumn-morph females indicated that they started oviposition in mid-April. The shape of the spermatophore suggested that autumn-morph females could re-mate with autumn-morph males before mid-April. Although the eupyrene sperm of the summer-morph males remained in the spermatheca just after overwintering, the nuptial gift hypothesis is more plausible than the risk-hedge hypothesis because most females re-mated in the spring before the onset of oviposition. A counter-adaptation of summer-morph males acting as a strategy for mating with autumn-morph females was also discussed.

Keywords

Apyrene sperm Eupyrene sperm Seasonal polyphenism Spermatheca Spermatophore 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Dr. T. Yokoi, Assistant Professor, University of Tsukuba, for valuable comments on this research. This work was supported in part by JSPS KAKENHI grant no. 24570019 (MW).

References

  1. Boggs CL, Gilbert LE (1979) Male contribution to egg production in butterflies: evidence for transfer of nutrients at mating. Science 206:83–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Boggs CL, Watt WB (1981) Population structure of pierid butterflies IV. Genetic and physiological investment in offspring by male Colias. Oecologia 50:320–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cook PA, Wedell N (1999) Non-fertile sperm delay female remating. Nature 397:486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Danks HV (1987) Insect dormancy: an ecological perspective. Biological Survey of Canada, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  5. Fukuda H, Hama E, Kuzuya K, Takahashi A, Takahashi M, Tanaka B, Tanaka H, Wakabayashi M, Watanabe Y (1982) The life history of butterflies in Japan, vol I. Hoikusya Publishing, Osaka (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  6. Kato Y (1986) The prediapause copulation and its significance in the butterfly Eurema hecabe. J Ethol 4:81–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Kato Y (1989) Differences in reproductive behavior among seasonal wing morphs of the butterfly Eurema hecabe. J Insect Behav 2:419–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kato Y, Sano M (1987) Role of photoperiod and temperature in seasonal morph determination of the butterfly Eurema hecabe. Physiol Entomol 12:417–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Koshiyama Y, Fujisaki K, Nakasuji F (1994) Mating and diapause in hibernating adults of Menida scotti Puton (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Res Popul Ecol 36:87–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Leong KHL, Yoshimura MA, Williams C (2012) Adaptive significance of previously mated monarch butterfly females (Danaus plexippus (Linneaus)) overwintering at a California winter site. J Lep Soc 66:205–210Google Scholar
  11. Leopold RA (1976) The role of male accessory glands in insect reproduction. Annu Rev Entomol 21:199–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Nylin S (1992) Seasonal plasticity in life history traits: growth and development in Polygonia c-album (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Biol J Linn Soc 47:301–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Prudic KL, Jeon C, Cao H, Monteiro A (2011) Developmental plasticity in sexual roles of butterfly species drives mutual sexual ornamentation. Science 331:73–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. R Development Core Team (2013) A language and environment for statistical computing. R foundation for statistical computing, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  15. Rasband WS (2014) ImageJ. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, USAGoogle Scholar
  16. Roth S, Reinhardt K (2003) Facultative sperm storage in response to nutritional status in a female insect. P Roy Soc Lond B Bio 270:S54–S56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Rutowski RL, Gilchrist GW, Terkanian B (1987) Female butterflies mated with recently mated males show reduced reproductive output. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 20:319–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Simmons LW (2001) Sperm competition and its evolutionary consequences in the insects. Princeton University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  19. Stevens L, McCauley DE (1989) Mating prior to overwintering in the imported willow leaf beetle, Plagiodera versicolora (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Ecol Entomol 14:219–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sugawara T (1979) Stretch reception in the bursa copulatrix of the butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora, and its role in behavior. J Comp Physiol A 130:191–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Tatar M, Yin CM (2001) Slow aging during insect reproductive diapause: why butterflies, grasshoppers and flies are like worms. Exp Gerontol 36:723–738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Tomioka K (1970) Copulating of autumn morph in Eurema hecabe. The Insects and Nature 5(12):16 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  23. Watanabe M, Ando S (1993) Influence of mating frequency on lifetime fecundity in wild females of the small white Pieris rapae. Jpn J Entomol 61:691–696Google Scholar
  24. Watanabe M, Bon’no M, Hachisuka A (2000) Eupyrene sperm migrates to spermatheca after apyrene sperm in the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus L. (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). J Ethol 18:91–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Wiklund C, Kaitala A, Lindfors V, Abenius J (1993) Polyandry and its effect on female reproduction in the green-veined white butterfly (Pieris napi L.). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 33:25–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Yata O (1974) Studies on seasonal forms and imaginal diapause in two Eurema species in Japan: Lepidoptera: Pieridae. Trans Lep Soc Jpn 25:47–54 (in Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Japanese Society of Applied Entomology and Zoology 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Conservation Ecology, Graduate School of Life and Environmental SciencesUniversity of TsukubaTsukubaJapan

Personalised recommendations