Regeneration cycle of seeds kept at genebanks is determined by seed longevity. Information about longevity of species is important for storage periods, germination test intervals, and reproduction cycles. Seed longevity is different between species and depends on the storage conditions. It also differs between genotypes of a species providing the basis of genetic analyses of seed longevity. Studies in hexaploid wheat and barley have identified numerous quantitative trait locus (QTL) linked to the trait. Seed longevity in durum wheat, however, has not been attempted so far. Here, we present the first report of genetic analysis of grain longevity in durum wheat using a bi-parental mapping population composed of 114 recombinant inbred lines. QTL analysis identified three highly significant and one significant QTL for initial germination (on chromosomes 4B, 5A (2 QTL), and 6B), three significant QTL for germination after accelerated aging treatment (on chromosomes 5A and 7B (2 QTL)), and five significant QTL determining relative germination and distributed on chromosomes 3A, 3B, 5A, 6B, and 7B. This study confirms the results of previous investigations in bread wheat and provides a baseline for further research in durum wheat.
Genebank Genetic mapping Germination Seed storage Triticum durum
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Mian Abdur Rehman Arif and Andreas Börner designed the study. Mian Abdur Rehman Arif performed the experiments and wrote the manuscript. Andreas Börner reviewed the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
Agacka M, Depta A, Börner M, Doroszewska T, Hay FR, Börner A (2013) Viability of Nicotiana spp. seeds stored under ambient temperature. Seed Sci Technol 41:474–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Agacka M, Laskowska D, Doroszewska T, Hay FR, Börner A (2014) Longevity of Nicotiana seeds conserved at low temperatures in ex situ genebanks. Seed Sci Technol 42:355–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Agacka M, Nagel M, Doroszewska T, Lewis RS, Börner A (2015) Mapping quantitative trait loci determining seed longevity in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). Euphytica 202:479–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Agacka M, Rehman Arif MA, Lohwasser U, Doroszewska T, Qualset CO, Börner A (2016) The inheritance of wheat grain longevity: a comparison between induced and natural ageing. J Appl Genet 57:477–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barton LV (1961) Seed preservation and longevity. Leonard Hill Ltd, LondonGoogle Scholar
Börner A, Schumann E, Fürste A, Cöster H, Leithold B, Röder MS, Weber WE (2002) Mapping of quantitative trait loci determining agronomic important characters in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Theor Appl Genet 105:921–936CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Campbell BT, Baenziger PS, Gill KS, Eskridge KM, Budak H, Erayman M, Dweikat IM, Yen Y (2003) Identification of QTLs and environmental interactions associated with agronomic traits on chromosome 3A of wheat. Crop Sci 43:1493–1505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
ISTA (International Seed Testing Association) (2010) International rules for seed testing. ISTA, BassersdorfGoogle Scholar
Landjeva S, Lohwasser U, Börner A (2010) Genetic mapping within the wheat D genome reveals QTLs for germination, seed vigour and longevity, and early seedling growth. Euphytica 171:129–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Linington SH, Pritchard HW (2001) Genebanks. In: Levin SA (ed) Encyclopedia of biodiversity. Vol 3. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 164–181Google Scholar
Nagel M, Börner A (2010) The longevity of crop seeds stored under ambient conditions. Seed Sci Res 20:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nagel M, Vogel H, Landjeva S, Buck-Sorlin G, Lohwasser U, Scholz U, Börner A (2009) Seed conservation in ex situ genebanks - genetic studies on longevity in barley. Euphytica 170:5–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nagel M, Rosenhauer M, Willner E, Snowdon RJ, Friedt W, Börner A (2011) Seed longevity in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) – genetic variation and QTL mapping. Plant Genet Resour 9:260–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nagel M, Navakode S, Scheibal V, Baum M, Nachit M, Röder MS, Börner A (2014) The genetic basis of durum wheat germination and seedling growth under osmotic stress. Biol Plant 58:681–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Quarrie SA, Steed A, Calestani C et al (2005) A high-density genetic map of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) from the cross Chinese Spring x SQ1 and its use to compare QTLs for grain yield across a range of environments. Theor Appl Genet 110:865–880CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rehman Arif MA, Nagel M, Neumann K, Kobiljski B, Lohwasser U, Börner A (2012) Genetic studies of seed longevity in hexaploid wheat exploiting segregation and association mapping approaches. Euphytica 186:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rehman Arif MA, Nagel M, Lohwasser U, Börner A (2017) Genetic architecture of seed longevity in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). J Biosci 42:81–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Walters C (1998) Understanding the mechanisms and kinetics of seed ageing. Seed Sci Res 8:223–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Walters C, Wheeler LM, Grotenhuis JM (2005) Longevity of seeds stored in a genebank: species characteristics. Seed Sci Res 15:1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar