Understanding the characteristics of cloud water resource (CWR) and precipitation efficiency of hydrometeors (PEh) is imperative for the application of CWR in Northwest China. The atmospheric precipitable water (PW) in all four seasons and clouds and PEh in summer were studied with ERA-5 and CloudSat data in this region. The results show that topography, especially in the Tibetan Plateau, exerts significant impacts on the precipitation and PW in summer, since large amounts of clouds are distributed along the mountain ranges. The study region is divided into four typical areas: the monsoon area in eastern Northwest China (NWE), the Qilian Mountains area (QM), the Tian-shan Mountains area (TM), and the Source of Three Rivers area (STR). Over the four areas, cloud top height (6.3 km) and cloud base height (3.3 km) over NWE are higher, and precipitating clouds are thicker (7 km) in the single-layer clouds. Liquid water content decreases with increasing altitude, while the ice water content first increases and then decreases. Liquid water path is higher over NWE (0.11 kg m−2) than over TM and STR (0.05 kg m−2), and the ice water path is mainly concentrated within the range of 0.025–0.055 kg m−2. The PEh values are distributed unevenly and affected evidently by the terrain. Although the PEh values in the four typical areas (0.3–0.6) are higher than those in other regions, the CWR is relatively abundant and has a higher exploitation potential. Therefore, it is well-founded to exploit CWR for alleviating water shortages in these areas of Northwest China in summer.
This is a preview of subscription content,to check access.
Access this article
Albergel, C., E. Dutra, S. Munier, et al., 2018: ERA-5 and ERA-interim driven ISBA land surface model simulations: Which one performs better? Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 3515–3532, doi: https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-22-3515-2018.
An, L., Z. Y. Yao, P. Zhang, et al., 2022: Regional characteristics and exploitation potential of atmospheric water resources in China. Int. J. Climatol., 42, 3225–3245, doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.7575.
Andreae, M. O., and D. Rosenfeld, 2008: Aerosol–cloud–precipitation interactions. Part 1. The nature and sources of cloud-active aerosols. Errth-Sci. Rev., 89, 13–41, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2008.03.001.
Austin, R. T., A. J. Heymsfield, and G. L. Stephens, 2009: Retrieval of ice cloud microphysical parameters using the CloudSat millimeter-wave radar and temperature. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 114, D00A23, doi: https://doi.org/10.1029/2008jd010049.
Barker, H. W., A. V. Korolev, D. R. Hudak, et al., 2008. A comparison between CloudSat and aircraft data for a multilayer, mixed phase cloud system during the Canadian CloudSat-CALIPSO Validation Project. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 113, D00A16, doi: https://doi.org/10.1029/2008jd009971.
Bendix, J., R. Rollenbeck, and W. E. Palacios, 2004: Cloud detection in the Tropics—a suitable tool for climate–ecological studies in the high mountains of Ecuador. Int. J. Remote Sens., 25, 4521–4540, doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/01431160410001709967.
Cai, M., 2013: Cloud water resources and precipitation efficiency evaluation over China. Ph.D. dissertation, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, China, 124 pp. (in Chinese)
Carrasco, E., R. Avila, A. Erasmus, et al., 2017: A satellite survey of cloud cover and water vapor in the southwestern USA and northern Mexico. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 129, 035005, doi: https://doi.org/10.1088/1538-3873/129/973/035005.
Chen, D. D., and Y. J. Dai, 2009: Characteristics and analysis of typical anomalous summer rainfall patterns in Northwest China over the last 50 years. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 33, 1247–1258, doi: https://doi.org/10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2009.06.11. (in Chinese)
Chen, X. M., Q. J. Liu, and J. C. Zhang, 2007: A numerical simulation study on microphysical structure and cloud seeding in cloud system of Qilian Mountain region. Meteor. Mon., 33, 33–43, doi: https://doi.org/10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2007.07.004. (in Chinese)
Chen, X. M., Q. Zou, and K. Li, 2011: Numerical simulation analysis of rainfall characteristics and artificial precipitation potentiality in a summer precipitation process of Chongqing. Meteor. Mon., 37, 1070–1080, doi: https://doi.org/10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2011.9.003. (in Chinese)
Chen, Y. H., J. P. Huang, C. H. Chen, et al., 2005: Temporal and spatial distributions of cloud water resources over northwestern China. Plateau Meteor., 24, 905–912, doi: https://doi.org/10.3321/j.issn:1000-0534.2005.06.009. (in Chinese)
Chen, Y. H., J. Y. Deng, P. Zhang, et al., 2013: Vertical distribution of ice water content in clouds during heavy rains around Tianshan Mountain. Resour. Sci., 35, 655–664. (in Chinese)
Cheng, J. Y., Q. L. You, Y. Q. Zhou, et al., 2021: Increasing cloud water resource in a warming world. Environ. Res. Lett., 16, 124067, doi: https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/ac3db0.
Ding, X. D., 2013: Cloud properties study in arid and semi-arid regions by using satellite data. Master dissertation, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China, 66 pp. (in Chinese)
Ding, X. D., J. P. Huang, J. M. Li, et al., 2012: Study on cloud vertical structure feature over Northwest China based on active satellite remote sensing and its influence on precipitation enhancement. J. Arid Meteor., 30, 529–538. (in Chinese)
Fan, G. Z., and G. D. Cheng, 2003: Influence of the Qinghai–Xiz-ang Plateau uplifting on precipitation change in Northwest China. Plateau Meteor., 22, 67–74, doi: https://doi.org/10.3321/j.issn:1000-0534.2003.z1.009. (in Chinese)
Fan, S. R., W. J. Wang, D. Lin, 2020: Tempral and spatial distribution characteristics of clouds with different types over China based on ISCCP data. J. Arid Meteor., 38, 213–225, doi: https://doi.org/10.11755/j.issn.1006-7639(2020)-02-0213. (in Chinese)
Garnier, A., J. Pelon, N. Pascal, et al., 2021: Version 4 CALIPSO imaging infrared radiometer ice and liquid water cloud micro-physical properties—Part I: The retrieval algorithms. Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3253–3276, doi: https://doi.org/10.5149/amt-14-2533-2021.
He, X. H., M. H. Song, and Z. X. Zhou, 2020: Temporal and spatial characteristics of water vapor and cloud water over the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau in summer. Plateau Meteor., 39, 1339–1347, doi: https://doi.org/10.5222/j.issn.1000-534.2019.00135. (in Chinese)
Henneberg, O., J. Henneberger, and U. Lohmann, 2017: Formation and development of orographic mixed-phase clouds. J. Atmos. Sci., 74, 3703–3724, doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-16-0348.1.
Hersbach, H., B. Bell, P. Berrisford, et al., 2018: ERA5 Hourly Data on Pressure Levels from 1979 to Present. Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) Climate Data Store (CDS). Available online at https://doi.org/10.24381/cds.bd0915c6. Accessed on 22 May 2023.
Hersbach, H., B. Bell, P. Berrisford, et al., 2019a: ERA5 Monthly Averaged Data on Single Levels from 1979 to Present. Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) Climate Data Store (CDS). Available online at https://doi.org/10.24381/cds.f17050d7. Accessed on 22 May 2023.
Hersbach, H., B. Bell, P. Berrisford, et al., 2019b: ERA5 Monthly Averaged Data on Pressure Levels from 1979 to Present. Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) Climate Data Store (CDS). Available online at https://doi.org/10.24381/cds.6860a573. Accessed on 22 May 2023.
Hersbach, H., B. Bell, P. Berrisford, et al., 2020: The ERA5 global reanalysis. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 146, 1999–2049, doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.3803.
Hong, Y. L., and G. S. Liu, 2015: The characteristics of ice cloud properties derived from CloudSat and CALIPSO measurements. J. Climate, 28, 3880–3901, doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/Jcli-D-14-00666.1.
Huang, J., X. Guan, and F. Ji, 2012: Enhanced cold-season warming in semi-arid regions. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 5391–5398, doi: https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-5391-2012.
Huang, R. H., and J. L. Chen, 2010: Characteristics of the summertime water vapor transports over the eastern part of China and those over the western part of China and their difference. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 34, 1035–1045, doi: https://doi.org/10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2010.06.01. (in Chinese)
Im, E., S. L. Durden, and S. Tanelli, 2006: CloudSat: The cloud profiling radar mission. Proceedings of 2006 CIE International Conference on Radar, IEEE, Shanghai, China, 1–4, doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/ICR.2006.343540.
IPCC, 2013: Climaee Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, T. F. Stocker, D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, et al., Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 1535 pp.
Kay, J. E., T. L’Ecuyer, A. Gettelman, et al., 2008: The contribution of cloud and radiation anomalies to the 2007 Arctic sea ice extent minimum. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L08503, doi: https://doi.org/10.1029/2008gl033451.
L’Ecuyer, T. S., and J. H. Jiang, 2010: Touring the atmosphere aboard the A-Train. Phys. Today, 63, 36–41, doi: https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3463626.
Li, H. Y., H. Wang, and Y. C. Hong, 2006: A numerical study of precipitation enhancement potential in frontal cloud system. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 30, 341–350, doi: https://doi.org/10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2006.02.16. (in Chinese)
Li, J.-L. F., D. E. Waliser, W.-T. Chen, et al., 2012: An observationally based evaluation of cloud ice water in CMIP3 and CMIP5 GCMs and contemporary reanalyses using contemporary satellite data. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 117, D16105, doi: https://doi.org/10.1029/2012JD017640.
Li, M., H. C. Jin, Y. H. Chen, et al., 2015: The inter-annual variation of macro and micro physical properties of ice particles in the lower layer cloud water resources over Tianshan Mountains. J. Nat. Resour., 30, 696–704, doi: https://doi.org/10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.04.015. (in Chinese)
Li, S. R., 2006: Case study of cloud and precipitation micro-physics structure over Northwest China. Meteor. Mon., 32, 59–63, doi: https://doi.org/10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2006.8.010. (in Chinese)
Li, X. Y., X. L. Guo, and J. Zhu, 2008: Climatic distribution features and trends of cloud water resources over China. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 32, 1094–1106, doi: https://doi.org/10.3878//.issn.1006-9895.2008.05.09. (in Chinese)
Li, Y. L., M. Yang, G. P. Zeng, et al., 2003: Analysis of weather conditions advantageous to artificial precipitation and potential regions during droughts in Jiangxi Province. J. Appl. Meteor. Sci., 14, 170–179. (in Chinese)
Li, Y. L., W. Y. Wu, D. J. Cai, et al., 2010: Characteristic analysis of cloud water resources over Jiangxi Province. Meteor. Sci. echnol., 38, 613–619, doi: https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1671-6345.2010.05.015. (in Chinese)
Li, Y. Y., R. C. Yu, Y. P. Xu, et al., 2004: Spatial distribution and seasonal variation of cloud over China based on ISCCP data and surface observations. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 82, 761–773, doi: https://doi.org/10.2151//jms/.2004.761.
Lin, T., Y. F. Zheng, T. Li, et al., 2018: The characteristics of ice cloud properties derived from satellite data in Northwest China. Plateau Meteor., 37, 1051–1060, doi: https://doi.org/10.7522/j.issn.1000-0534.2017.00088. (in Chinese)
Lin, Z. Q., S. Y. Tang., X. H. He, et al., 2011: Features of water vapor transfer in rainy season and their relations to rainfall anomalies over Tibetan Plateau. Meteor. Mon., 37, 984–990. (in Chinese)
Liu, H. L., W. Q. Zhu, S. H. Yi, et al., 2003: Climatic analysis of the cloud over China. Acta Meteor. Sinica, 61, 466–473, doi: https://doi.org/10.11676/qxxb2003.045. (in Chinese)
Liu, J. J., Q. L. You, Y. Q. Zhou, et al., 2018: Spatiotemporal distribution and trend of cloud water content in China based on ERA-Interim reanalysis. Plateau Meteor., 37, 1590–1604, doi: https://doi.org/10.7522//.issn.1000-0534.2018.00059. (in Chinese)
Liu, L. P., J. F. Zheng, Z. Ruan, et al., 2015: Comprehensive radar observations of clouds and precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau and preliminary analysis of cloud properties. J. Meteor. Res., 29, 546–561, doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13351-015-4208-6.
Liu, R. X., Y. J. Liu, and B. Y. Du, 2002: Cloud climatic characteristics of the Tibetan Plateau from ISCCP data. J. Nanjing Inst. Meteor., 25, 226–234, doi: https://doi.org/10.13878/j.cnki.dqkxxb.2002.02.013. (in Chinese)
Liu, T., 2015: A numerical simulation study of macro and micro structure characteristics and precipitation efficiency of stratiform clouds. Master dissertation, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing, China, 66 pp. (in Chinese)
Liu, W. C., Q. Zhang, and C. Fu, 2017: Variation characteristics of precipitation and its affecting factors in Northwest China over the past 55 years. Plateau Meteor., 36, 1533–1545, doi: https://doi.org/10.7522//.issn.1000-0534.2017.00081. (in Chinese)
Liu, W. X., 2020: Study of urban and rural water poverty in Northwest China: Unbalance, evolution and spatial heterogeneity. Ph.D. dissertation, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China, 152 pp. (in Chinese)
Liu, Y., S. H. Zhao, B. Cai, et al., 2017: Comparison of vertical structure between precipitation cloud and non-precipitation cloud based on CloudSat data over Northeast China. Meteor. Mon., 43, 1374–1382, doi: https://doi.org/10.7519//.issn.1000-0526.2017.11.006. (in Chinese)
Liu, Y. Z., S. T. Chang, S. Hua, et al., 2018: A review of the research on atmospheric water resources over arid and semi-arid regions of East Asia. Acta Meteor. Sinica, 76, 485–492, doi: https://doi.org/10.11676/qxxb2018.004. (in Chinese)
Ma, Q. R., Q. L. You, Y. J. Ma, et al., 2021: Changes in cloud amount over the Tibetan Plateau and impacts of large-scale circulation. Atmos. Res., 299, 105332, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.at-mosres.2020.105332.
Pruppacher, H. R., J. D. Klett, and P. K. Wang, 1998: Microphysics of clouds and precipitation. Aerosol Sci. Technol., 28, 381–382, doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/02786829808965531.
Qiang, A. F., N. Wang, J. H. Wei, et al., 2020: Study on cloud water resources distribution and precipitation efficiency in the Three River Headwaters region during the past 50 years. J. Basic Sci. Eng., 28, 574–593, doi: https://doi.org/10.16058/j.issn.1005-0930.2020.03.007. (in Chinese)
Reddy, N. N., M. V. Ratnam, G. Basha, et al., 2018: Cloud vertical structure over a tropical station obtained using long-term high-resolution radiosonde measurements. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11,709–11,727, doi: https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-11709-2018.
Shang, B., Y. Q. Zhou, J. Z. Liu, et al., 2012: Comparing vertical structure of precipitation cloud and non-precipitation cloud using Cloudsat. J. Appl. Meteor. Sci., 23, 1–9, doi: https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1001-7313.2012.01.001. (in Chinese)
Shi, X. L., Q. Yang, J. Q. Yao, et al., 2016: The spatial distribution of water vapor and cloud water content over Tianshan Mountains, China based on ERA-Interim dataset. Desert Oasis Meteor., 10, 50–56, doi: https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1002-0799.2016.02.008. (in Chinese)
Stephens, G. L., D. G. Vane, R. J. Boain, et al., 2002: The Cloud-Sat mission and the A-Train: A new dimension of space-based observations of clouds and precipitation. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83, 1771–1790, doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/bams-83-12-1771.
Stephens, G. L., D. G. Vane, S. Tanelli, et al., 2008: CloudSat mission: Performance and early science after the first year of operation. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 113, D00A18, doi: https://doi.org/10.1029/2008jd009982.
Su, Y. F., C. F. Zhao, Y. Wang, et al., 2020: Spatiotemporal variations of precipitation in China using surface gauge observations from 1961 to 2016. Atmosphere, 11, 303, doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11030303.
Sui, C. H., M. Satoh, and K. Suzuki, 2020: Precipitation efficiency and its role in cloud-radiative feedbacks to climate variability. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 98, 261–282, doi: https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2020-024.
Sumargo, E., and D. R. Cayan, 2017: Variability of cloudiness over mountain terrain in the Western United States. J. Hydro-meteor., 18, 1227–1245, doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/jhm-d-16-0194.1.
Sun, J. H., H. J. Wang, J. Wei, et al., 2016: The sources and transportation of water vapor in persistent heavy rainfall events in the Yangtze–Huaihe River Valley. Acta Meteor. Sinica, 74, 542–555, doi: https://doi.org/10.11676/qxxb2016.047. (in Chinese)
Tao, Y., J. X. Li, J. Dang, et al., 2015: A numerical study on precipitation process and moisture budget of stratiform and embedded convective cloud over Beijing area. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 39, 445–460, doi: https://doi.org/10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1412.13209. (in Chinese)
Urraca, R., T. Huld, A. Gracia-Amillo, et al., 2018: Evaluation of global horizontal irradiance estimates from ERA5 and COSMO-REA6 reanalyses using ground and satellite-based data. Solar Energy, 164, 339–354, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soleneo.2018.02.059.
Vondou, D. A., 2012: Spatio–temporal variability of western central African convection from infrared observations. Atmosphere, 3, 377–399, doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos3030377.
Wang, C. H., S. N. Zhang, K. C. Li, et al., 2021: Change characteristics of precipitation in Northwest China from 1961 to 2018. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 713–724, doi: https://doi.org/10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2101.20216. (in Chinese)
Wang, H. Q., Y. H. Chen, K. J. Peng, et al., 2011: Study on cloud water resources of mountain ranges in Xinjiang based on Aqua satellite data. J. Nat. Resour., 26, 89–96, doi: https://doi.org/10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.01.009. (in Chinese)
Wang, J., and Y. Y. Chen, 2017: Evaluation of cloud water resources of Jiangsu Province. Chinese Agric. Sci. Bull., 33, 121–124, doi: https://doi.org/10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb16020049. (in Chinese)
Wang, J., S. Gui, A. Q. Ma, et al., 2019: Interdecadal variability of summer precipitation efficiency in east Asia. Adv. Meteor., 2019, 3563024, doi: https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/3563024.
Wang, J. H., W. B. Rossow, and Y. C. Zhang, 2000: Cloud vertical structure and its variations from a 20-yr global rawinsonde dataset. J. Climate, 13, 3041–3056, doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2000)013<3041:CVSAIV>2.0.CO;2.
Wang, J. S., F. H. Chen, Q. Zhang, et al., 2008: Temperature variations in arid and semi-arid areas in middle part of Asia during the last 100 years. Plateau Meteor., 27, 1035–1045. (in Chinese)
Wang, S. H., Z. G. Han, Z. Z. Yao, et al., 2011: Analysis on cloud vertical structure over China and its neighborhood based on CloudSat data. Plateau Meteor., 30, 38–52. (in Chinese)
Wang, W. J., 2018: Study of characteristics of air cloud and water resource in Northwest China. Master dissertation, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China, 122 pp. (in Chinese)
Wang, Y., W. Zhang, J. Ren, et al., 2019: Characteristics of cloud physical parameters and their relationship to the rainfall over Qilian Mountains areas. J. Lanzhou Univ. Nat. Sci., 55, 632–640, doi: https://doi.org/10.13885/j.issn.0455-2059.2019.05.010. (in Chinese)
Wang, Y. Q., J. Feng, J. P. Li, et al., 2020: Interannual variation of summer precipitation in the eastern of Northwest China and its relationship with circulation. Plateau Meteor., 39, 290–300, doi: https://doi.org/10.7522/j.issn.1000-0534.2019.00023. (in Chinese)
Winker, D. M., W. H. Hunt, and M. J. McGill, 2007: Initial performance assessment of CALIOP. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L19803, doi: https://doi.org/10.1029/2007gl030135.
Wu, Y. C., M. J. Yang, and P. H. Lin, 2020: Evolution of water budget and precipitation efficiency of mesoscale convective systems over the South China Sea. Terr. Atmos. Ocean. Sci., 31, 141–158, doi: https://doi.org/10.3319/Tao.2019.07.17.01.
Xie, J. N., 2000: The Research on Change and Prediction of Drought Climate in Northwest China. China Meteorological Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
Xu, H. Y., G. Q. Zhai, and X. F. Li, 2017: Precipitation efficiency and water budget of typhoon fitow (2013): A particle trajectory study. J. Hydrometeor., 18, 2331–2354, doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/JHM-D-16-0273.1.
Yao, J. Q., Q. Yang, W. F. Hu, et al., 2013: Characteristics analysis of water vapor contents around Tianshan Mountains and the relationships with climate factors. Sci. Geogr. Sinica, 33, 859–864, doi: https://doi.org/10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2013.07.014. (in Chinese)
Yao, Z. G., C. Yang., Z. L. Zhao, et al., 2018: Study of the stratiform cloud liquid water path retrieval from the millimeter wave radar data. Plateau Meteor., 37, 223–233, doi: https://doi.org/10.7522/j.issn.1000-0534.2016.00127. (in Chinese)
Ye, P. L., T. H. Wang, K. Z. Shang, et al., 2014: Analysis of cloud vertical structure over western China based on active satellite data. Plateau Meteor., 33, 977–987, doi: https://doi.org/10.7522/j.issn.1000-0534.2013.00158. (in Chinese)
Yi, S. H., H. L. Liu, W. L. Li, et al., 2003: Spatial and temporal distributions of cloud over Northwest of China. Meteor. Mon., 29, 7–11, doi: https://doi.org/10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2003.1.002. (in Chinese)
Yin, X. Z., Y. R. Wang, W. J. Xu, et al., 2020: Recent progress in research on potential for the development of cloud water resources over Qilian Mountains area. Desert Oasis Meteor., 14, 134–140.
You, Q. L., J. J. Liu, and N. Pepin, 2019: Changes of summer cloud water content in China from ERA-Interim reanalysis. Global Planet. Change, 175, 201–210, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.glo-placha.2019.02.014.
Yu, H., J. Zhang, and S. M. Liu, 2018: The variation of effective radiation in Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau based on the CERES satellite data. Plateau Meteor., 37, 106–122, doi: https://doi.org/10.7522/j.issn.1000-0534.2017.00045. (in Chinese)
Zhang, C. J., S. Q. Zhang, J. X. Zhou, et al., 2021: Atmospheric circulation analysis for weather modification over Northwest China. Adv. Meteor. Sci. Technol., 11, 149–157, doi: https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.2095-1973.2021.05.022. (in Chinese)
Zhang, D. J., C. X. Shi, T. Zhang, et al., 2022: Comparative analysis of the total cloud cover products of various data in China. Plateau Meteor., 41, 803–813, doi: https://doi.org/10.7522/j.issn.1000-0534.2021.00019. (in Chinese)
Zhang, D. M., A. Vogelmann, P. Kollias, et al., 2019: Comparison of Antarctic and Arctic single-layer stratiform mixed-phase cloud properties using ground-based remote sensing measurements. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 124, 10,186–10,204, doi: https://doi.org/10.1029/2019JD030673.
Zhang, H. H., M. M. Shi, H. Wu, et al., 2021: Cloud water resources assessment in Qinghai Province based on ERA-Interim reanalysis data. J. Arid Meteor., 39, 569–576, doi: https://doi.org/10.11755/j.issn.1006-7639(2021)-04-0569. (in Chinese)
Zhang, P., 2019: Study on characteristics of atmospheric water resources and precipitation efficiency over typical regions in Northwest China. Master dissertation, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, China, 67 pp. (in Chinese)
Zhang, P., Z. Y. Yao, S. Jia, et al., 2020: Study of the characteristics of atmospheric water resources and hydrometeor precipitation efficiency over the Liupan Shan area. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 421–434, doi: https://doi.org/10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1904.19104. (in Chinese)
Zhang, X., K. Q. Duan, and P. H. Shi, 2015: Cloud vertical profiles from CloudSat data over the eastern Tibetan Plateau during summer. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 39, 1073–1080, doi: https://doi.org/10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1502.14196. (in Chinese)
Zhang, Y., B. F. Li, and Y. N. Chen, 2018: The temporal and spatial variation of water vapor content and its relationship with precipitation in the arid region of Northwest China from 1970 to 2013. J. Nat. Resour., 33, 1043–1055, doi: https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20170518. (in Chinese)
Zhang, Z. Z., Q. Huang, Q. Q. Qi, et al., 2007: Cloud water resources and its computing method. J. Hydrol. Eng., (S1), 428–431. (in Chinese)
Zhao, Y. F., and J. Zhu, 2015: Assessing quality of grid daily precipitation datasets in China in recent 50 years. Plateau Meteor., 34, 50–58, doi: https://doi.org/10.7522/j.issn.1000-0534.2013.00141. (in Chinese)
Zhong, L. Z., R. F. Yang, Y. X. Wen, et al., 2017: Cross-evaluation of reflectivity from the space-borne precipitation radar and multi-type ground-based weather radar network in China. Atmos. Res., 196, 200–210, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2017.06.016.
Zhou, D. P., F. J. Gong, S. J. Zhang, et al., 2005: Study on the distribution characteristics and developing potential of cloud water resource in Liaoning province. J. Nat. Resour., 20, 644–650, doi: https://doi.org/10.11849/zrzyxb.2005.05.002. (in Chinese)
Zhou, F. F., Y. C. Hong, and Z. Zhao, 2010: A numerical study of the moisture budget and the mechanism for precipitation for a stratiform cloud system. Acta Meteor. Sinica, 68, 182–194, doi: https://doi.org/10.11676/qxxb2010.019. (in Chinese)
Zhou, Y. Q., M. Cai, C. Tan, et al., 2020: Quantifying the cloud water resource: Basic concepts and characteristics. J. Meteor. Res., 34, 1242–1255, doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13351-020-9125-7.
Zhu, Q. Z., 2022: Impact of water resources outflowing from the Tibeten Plateau on the precipitation over downstream region. Ph.D. dissertation, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China, 135 pp. (in Chinese)
Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41775139), Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2016YFE0201900 and GYHY201406033), and China Meteorological Administration (ZQC-R18169/RYSY201904).
About this article
Cite this article
Yao, Z., An, L., Zhang, P. et al. Characteristics of Cloud Water Resource and Precipitation Efficiency of Hydrometeors over Northwest China. J Meteorol Res 37, 353–369 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13351-023-2105-y