Advertisement

Acta Meteorologica Sinica

, Volume 26, Issue 3, pp 261–277 | Cite as

A climatology of extratropical cyclones over East Asia during 1958–2001

  • Yingxian Zhang (张颖娴)Email author
  • Yihui Ding (丁一汇)
  • Qiaoping Li (李巧萍)
Article

Abstract

A climatology of extratropical cyclones (ECs) over East Asia (20°−75°N, 60°−160°E) is analyzed by applying an improved objective detection and tracking algorithm to the 4-time daily sea level pressure fields from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis data. A total of 12914 EC processes for the period of 1958–2001 are identified, with an EC database integrated and EC activities reanalyzed using the objective algorithm. The results reveal that there are three major cyclogenesis regions: West Siberian Plain, Mongolia (to the south of Lake Baikal), and the coastal region of East China; whereas significant cyclolysis regions are observed in Siberia north of 60°N, Northeast China, and Okhotsk Sea-Northwest Pacific. It is found that the EC lifetime is largely 1–7 days while winter ECs have the shortest lifespan. The ECs are the weakest in summer among the four seasons. Strong ECs often appear in West Siberia, Northeast China, and Okhotsk Sea-Northwest Pacific. Statistical analysis based on k-means clustering has identified 6 dominating trajectories in the area south of 55°N and east of 80°E, among which 4 tracks have important impacts on weather/climate in China. ECs occurring in spring (summer) tend to travel the longest (shortest). They move the fastest in winter, and the slowest in summer. In winter, cyclones move fast in Northeast China, some areas of the Yangtze-Huaihe River region, and the south of Japan, with speed greater than 15 m s−1. Explosively-deepening cyclones are found to occur frequently along the east coast of China, Japan, and Northwest Pacific, but very few storms occur over the inland area. Bombs prefer to occur in winter, spring, and autumn. Their annual number and intensity in 1990 and 1992 in East Asia (EA) are smaller and weaker than their counterparts in North America.

Key words

extratropical cyclones objective detection and tracking algorithm cyclogenesis cyclolysis cyclone tracks explosively-deepening cyclones 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alpert, P., B. U. Neeman, and Y. Shayel, 1990: Climatological analysis of the Mediterranean cyclones using ECMWF data. Tellus A, 42, 65–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bartholy, J., R. Pongrácz, and M. Pattantyús-Ábrahám, 2009: Analyzing the genesis, intensity, and tracks of western Mediterranean cyclones. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 96, 133–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Blender, R., K. Fraedrich, and F. Lunkeit, 1997: Identification of cyclone-track regimes in the North Atlantic. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 123, 727–741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cai Lina, Sui Yingjiu, Liu Daqing, et al., 2009: Analysis on an unusual snowstorm event caused by explosive cyclone. Acta Sci. Natur. Univ. Pekinensis, 45(4), 693–700. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  5. Ding Yihui, 2005: Advanced Synoptic Meteorology. China Meteorological Press, Beijing, 150–187. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  6. — and Zhu Tong, 1994: A dynamic analysis and numerical simulation of explosive development of an extratropical cyclone over land. Sci. China (Ser. B), 37(5), 590–600.Google Scholar
  7. Favre, A., and A. Gershunov, 2006: Extratropical cyclonic/anticyclonic activity in northeastern Pacific and air temperature extremes in western North America. Climate Dyn., 26, 617–629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Geng, Q., and M. Sugi, 2001: Variability of the North Atlantic cyclone activity in winter analyzed from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. J. Climate, 14, 3863–3873.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Graham, N. E., and H. F. Diaz, 2001: Evidence for intensification of North Pacific winter cyclones since 1948. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 82, 1869–1893.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gyakum, J. R., D.-L. Zhang, J. Witte, et al., 1996: CASP II and the Canadian cyclones during the 1989-92 cold seasons. Atmos.-Ocean, 34, 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Haak, U., and U. Ulbrich, 1996: Verification of an objective cyclone climatology for the North Atlantic. Meteor. Z., 5, 24–30.Google Scholar
  12. Hartigan, J. A., 1975: Clustering Algorithms. Wiley and Sons, New York, 84–112.Google Scholar
  13. Hodges, K. I., 1994: A general method for tracking analysis and its application to meteorological data. Mon. Wea. Rev., 122, 2573–2586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jones, D. A., and I. Simmonds, 1993: A climatology of Southern Hemisphere extratropical cyclones. Climate Dyn., 9, 131–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. König, W., R. Sausen, and F. Sielmann, 1993: Objective identification of cyclones in GCM simulations. J. Climate, 6, 2217–2231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lambert, S. J., 1988: A cyclone climatology of the Canadian climate centre general circulation model. J. Climate, 1, 109–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lionello, P., F. Dalan, and E. Elvini, 2002: Cyclone in the Mediterranean region: The present and the doubled CO2 climate scenarios. Climate Res., 22, 147–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Liu Jingtao, Zheng Xinjiang, Kang Ling, et al., 2003: A case study of a severe dust storm resulted from an explosive Mongolia cyclone. Climatic Environ. Res., 8(2), 218–229. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  19. Maheras, P., H. A. Flocas, I. Patrikas, et al., 2001: A 40 year objective climatology of surface cyclones in the Mediterranean region: Spatial and temporal distribution. Int. J. Climatol., 21, 109–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mendes, D., E. P. Souza, J. A. Marengo, et al., 2010: Climatology of extratropical cyclones over the South American-Southern Oceans sector. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 100, 239–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mirkin, B., 1996: Mathematical Classification and Clustering. Kluwer Academic, London, 132–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Murray, R. J., and I. Simmonds, 1991a: A numerical scheme for tracking cyclone centres from digital data. Part I: Development and operation of the scheme. Aust. Met. Mag., 39, 156–166.Google Scholar
  23. —, and —, 1991b: A numerical scheme for tracking cyclone centres from digital data. Part II: Application to January and July general circulation model simulations. Aust. Met. Mag., 39, 167–180.Google Scholar
  24. Pinto, J. G., T. Spangehl, U. Ulbrich, et al., 2005: Sensitivities of a cyclone detection and tracking algorithm: Individual tracks and climatology. Meteor. Z., 14, 823–838.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Reitan, C. H., 1974: Frequencies of cyclones and cyclogenesis for North America, 1951–1970. Mon. Wea. Rev., 102, 861–868.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sanders, F., and J. R. Gyakum, 1980: Synoptic-dynamic climatology of the “bomb”. Mon. Wea. Rev., 108, 1589–1606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Serreze, M. C., 1995: Climatological aspects of cyclone development and decay in the Arctic. Atmos.-Ocean, 33, 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. —, F. Carse, R. G. Barry, et al., 1997: Icelandic low cyclone activity: Climatological features, linkages with the NAO, and relationship with recent changes in Northern Hemisphere circulation. J. Climate, 10, 453–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Simmonds, I., and X. Wu, 1993: Cyclone behaviour response to changes in winter Southern Hemisphere sea-ice concentration. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 119, 1121–1148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. —, R. J. Murray, and R. M. Leighton, 1999: A refinement of cyclone tracking methods with data from FROST. Aust. Met. Mag. (Special Edition), 35–49.Google Scholar
  31. Sinclair, M. R., 1997: Objective identification of cyclones and their circulation intensity, and climatology. Wea. Forecasting, 12, 595–612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Trigo, I. F., T. D. Davies, and G. R. Bigg, 1999: Objective climatology of cyclones in the Mediterranean region. J. Climate, 12, 1685–1696.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tu Nini, Jiao Meiyan, Zhao Linna, et al., 2007: Dynamical characteristics for a Mongolia cyclone associated with sand-dust storm in North China. J. Desert Res., 27(3), 520–527. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  34. Wang Xinmin, Zou Xukai, and Zhai Panmao, 2007: Researches on extratropical cyclone variability in the Northern Hemisphere. Adv. Climate Change Res., 3(3), 154–157. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  35. —, Zhai Panmao, and Wang Cuicui, 2009: Variations in extratropical cyclone activity in northern East Asia. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 26(3), 471–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wu Rongsheng, 1999: Principles of Modern Synoptic Meteorology. Higher Education Press, Beijing, 124–161. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  37. Yao Suxiang, Zhang Yaocun, and Zhou Tianjun, 2003: Climatic characteristics of extratropical cyclone frequency and its variations over East Asia during recent 50 years in spring. J. Nanjing Institute of Meteorology, 26(3), 317–323. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  38. Zhang Shangyin, 1984: The statistical feature of cyclones and analysis of developable weather in northern China. Plateau Meteorology, 3(3), 83–89. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  39. Zhao Linna and Zhao Sixiong, 2004a: Simulation of rapid developing cyclone associated with strong dust storm in North China. Climatic Environ. Res., 9(1), 116–126. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  40. — and —, 2004b: A diagnostic study of rapid developing cyclone in North China. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 28(5), 722–735. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  41. Zhu Qiangen, Lin Jinrui, Shou Shaowen, et al., 2000: Principles of Synoptic Meteorology. China Meteorological Press, Beijing, 133–143. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  42. Zishka, K. M., and P. J. Smith, 1980: The climateology of cyclones and anticyclones over North America and surrounding ocean environs for January and July, 1950–1977. Mon. Wea. Rev., 108, 387–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Chinese Meteorological Society and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yingxian Zhang (张颖娴)
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Yihui Ding (丁一汇)
    • 3
  • Qiaoping Li (李巧萍)
    • 3
  1. 1.Chinese Academy of Meteorological SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.College of Atmospheric ScienceNanjing University of Information Science & TechnologyNanjingChina
  3. 3.National Climate CenterBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations