Cast iron pipe breaks are an increasing concern as water distribution networks installed in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries continue to deteriorate. Breaks can be caused by a number of factors, but two of the most critical are corrosion and differential ground movement causing bending. In this study, two tests were conducted to investigate the application of distributed fiber optic sensors to measure the influence of simulated corrosion pits and differential ground movements on buried pipe behaviour to provide information on the impact of corrosion as part of a larger monitoring and assessment strategy. A 154 mm-diameter steel pipe was used as both a ‘control’ specimen and a ‘deteriorated’ specimen after two 25.4 mm (1 inch)-diameter holes were drilled into the pipe to simulate corrosion pits. Distributed fiber optic strain sensors were installed longitudinally along the pipe at the crown, invert, and springlines as well as around the circumference of the simulated corrosion pits. The longitudinal behaviour of both specimens passing across a normal ground fault was similar, although higher strains and curvatures (6% higher) were measured for the deteriorated pipe on the stationary side of the ground displacement. The Kirsch solution was applied to estimate the strain distribution around the holes. On the moving side, the results assuming uniaxial stress (i.e., pure bending producing a plane stress condition) from the Kirsch solution were in good visual agreement with the measured strains. On the stationary side, the measured strain results indicated a biaxial compressive stress condition that was not captured by the plane stress approach.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
The experimental data are available upon request from the corresponding author.
Canadian Infrastructure Report Card. (2016) http://canadianinfrastructure.ca/downloads/Canadian_Infrastructure_Report_2016.pdf.
Folkman S (2018) Water main break rates in the USA and Canada: a comprehensive study. https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1173&context=mae_facpub
Makar JM, Desnoyers R, McDonald SE (2001) Failure modes and mechanisms in gray cast iron pipe. Underground Infrastructure Research, 1–10.
Singley JE, Beaudet B (1985) Corrosion prevention and control in water treatment and supply systems. Noyes Publications
Doyle G (2000) The role of soil in the external corrosion of cast-iron water mains in Toronto, Canada. Master Thesis, University of Toronto, Toronto.
Iverson WP (1984) Mechanism of anaerobic corrosion of steel by sulfate reducing bacteria. Mater Perform 23(3):28–30
Seica MV, Packer JA (2004) Mechanical properties and strength of aged cast iron water pipes. J Mater Civ Eng 16(1):69–77
Seica MV, Packer JA (2004) Finite element evaluation of the remaining mechanical strength of deteriorated cast iron pipes. J Eng Mater Technol 126(1):95–102
Seica MV, Packer JA (2006) Simplified numerical method to evaluate the mechanical strength of cast iron water pipes. J Infrastruct Syst 12(1):60–67
Seica MV, Packer JA, Grabinsky MW, Adams BJ (2002) Evaluation of the properties of Toronto iron water mains and surrounding soil. Can J Civ Eng 29(2):222–237
Elshimi TM, Moore ID (2013) Modeling the effects of backfilling and soil compaction beside shallow buried pipes. J Pipeline Syst Eng Pract 4(4):04013004
Regier C, Hoult NA, Moore ID (2017) Laboratory study on the behavior of a horizontal-ellipse culvert during service and ultimate load testing. J Bridg Eng 22(3):04016131
Simpson B, Hoult NA, Moore ID (2015) Distributed sensing of circumferential strain using fiber optics during full-scale buried pipe experiments. J Pipeline Syst Eng Pr 6(4):04015002
Trickey SA, Moore ID, Balkaya M (2016) Parametric study of frost-induced bending moments in buried cast iron water pipes. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 51:291–300
Ni P, Moore ID, Take WA (2018) Distributed fiber optic sensing of strains on buried full-scale PVC pipelines crossing a normal fault. Géotechnique 68(1):1–17
O’Rourke TD (2010) Geohazards and large, geographically distributed systems. Géotechnique 60(7):505
Tennyson RC, Morison WD, Miesner T (2005) Pipeline integrity assessment using fiber optic sensors. In pipelines 2005: optimizing pipeline design, operations, and maintenance in today’s economy (pp. 803–817).
Glisic B, Yao Y (2012) Fiber optic method for health assessment of pipelines subjected to earthquake-induced ground movement. Struct Health Monit 11(6):696–711
Davis M, Hoult NA, Scott A (2017) Distributed strain sensing to assess corroded RC beams. Eng Struct 140:473–482
Liu Z, Kleiner Y (2013) State of the art review of inspection technologies for condition assessment of water pipes. Measurement 46(1):1–15
Hoult NA, Ekim O, Regier R (2014) Damage/deterioration detection for steel structures using distributed fiber optic strain sensors. J Eng Mech 140(12):04014097
Ma G (2018) Study examining idealised corrosion pits in metal pipes under longitudinal bending, MASc thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, Queen’s University, Kingston.
ASTM (2016) Standard practice for rehabilitation of existing pipelines and conduits by the inversion and curing of a resin-impregnated tube. ASTM F1216. West Conshohocken, PA, USA.
The Fiber Optica Association Inc. Reference Guide. https://www.thefoa.org/tech/ref/install/bend_radius.html.
Poon E (2015) Vitrified clay pipe joint behaviour under differential ground movement, MASc thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. 215pp.
Min Z, Moore ID, Lan H (2019) Experimental study of the structural response of lined-corrugated HDPE pipe subjected to normal fault. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 145(12):04019117
Peter JM, Chapman D, Moore ID, Hoult N (2018) Impact of soil erosion voids on reinforced concrete pipe responses to surface loads. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 82:111–124
Tognon AR, Rowe RK, Brachman RW (1999) Evaluation of side wall friction for a buried pipe testing facility. Geotext Geomembr 17(4):193–212
Ni P (2016) Nonlinear soil-structure interaction for buried pressure pipes under differential ground motion, doctoral thesis, department of civil engineering. Queen’s University, p 291
Kirsch G (1898) Die theorie der elastizitat und die bedurfnisse der festigkeitslehre. Zeitschrift Vereines Deutscher Ingenieure 42:797–807
This research was financially supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Council of Canada, the Canada Foundation for Innovation, and the Government of Ontario. The authors are also grateful to Graeme Boyd, Joshua Coghlan, Josh Treitz, and Hendrik Williams for their assistance.
This research was financially supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Council of Canada, the Canada Foundation for Innovation, and the Government of Ontario.
Conflict of interest
The authors have no conflict of interest/competing interests.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Lan, H., Ma, G., Hoult, N.A. et al. Stress concentrations due to simulated corrosion pits in buried metal pipes under longitudinal bending. J Civil Struct Health Monit (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13349-021-00522-8
- Steel pipe
- Distributed strains
- Corrosion pits
- Longitudinal bending
- Differential ground movement
- Kirsch solution