Skip to main content

Reliability assessment of a building complex with four long-span roof structures based on wind tunnel experiments


A building complex consisting of four identical long-span roof structures are tested in the wind tunnel to determine dynamic wind loads on structures. Based on the time-history data of spatially distributed wind pressure, wind-induced vibration analyses of the structures under varying incident wind attack angles have been carried out in time-domain. Then a novel framework for assessing dynamic wind resistance reliability has been proposed by integrating wind tunnel experiment, Monte Carlo simulation method, and the non-Gaussian wind pressure field simulation technique. The framework takes into account the uncertainties of design wind speed, wind directionality and structural damping ratio, as well as the randomness of Non-Gaussian wind pressure field. It has been demonstrated that the proposed framework is effective and efficient to comprehensively assess the wind-induced dynamic reliability of the long-span roof structure in the rectangular array. The annual failure probability of the long-span roof structure is obtained by considering the first passage reliability of displacement responses.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17
Fig. 18
Fig. 19
Fig. 20
Fig. 21
Fig. 22
Fig. 23
Fig. 24


  1. 1.

    Yi J, Li QS (2015) Wind tunnel and full-scale study of wind effects on a super-tall building. J Fluids Struct 58:236–253

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Huang MF, Lou WJ, Yang L et al (2012) Experimental and computational simulation for wind effects on the Zhoushan transmission towers. Struct Infrastruct Eng 8(8):781–799

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Chen FB, Li QS (2013) Characteristics of wind loads acting on complex long-span roof structure. Adv Civ Infrastruct Eng 639–640:523–529

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Holmes JD (2002) Effective static load distributions in wind engineering. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 90(2):91–109

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Huang GQ, Chen XZ (2007) Wind load effects and equivalent static wind loads of tall buildings based on synchronous pressure measurements. Eng Struct 29(10):2641–2653

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Uematsu Y, Watanabe K, Sasaki A (1997) Wind-induced dynamic response and resultant load estimation of a circular flat roof. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 83:251–261

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Uematsu Y, Kuribara O, Yamada M et al (2001) Wind-induced dynamic behavior and its load estimation of a single-layer latticed dome with a long span. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 89(14–15):1671–1687

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Uematsu Y, Sone T, Yamada M (2002) Wind-induced dynamic response and its load estimation for structural frames of single-layer latticed domes with long spans. Wind Struct 5(6):543–562

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Wu JH, Zhang DQ, Jiang C et al (2021) On reliability analysis method through rotational sparse grid nodes. Mech Syst Signal Process 147:107106

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Song YP, Basu B, Zhang ZL et al (2020) Dynamic reliability analysis of a floating offshore wind turbine under wind-wave joint excitations via probability density evolution method. Renew Energy 168(6):991–1014

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Wang W, Zhou YX, Li CY et al (2019) Dynamic reliability analysis of a cantilever beam during a deterioration process. Mech Based Des Struct Mach 47(1):87–101

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Chen JJ, Duan BY, Zeng YG (1997) Study on dynamic reliability analysis of the structures with multi degree of freedom. Comput Struct 62(5):877

    MATH  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Kawano K, Venkataramana K (1999) Dynamic response and reliability analysis of large offshore structures. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 168:255

    MATH  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Spencer BF, Elishakoff I (1988) Reliability of uncertain linear and nonlinear systems. J Eng Mech 114(1):135–149

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Li J, Chen JB (2005) Dynamic response and reliability analysis of structures with uncertain parameters. Int J Numer Meth Eng 62(2):289–315

    MATH  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Chen JB, Li J (2005) Dynamic response and reliability analysis of nonlinear stochastic structures. Probab Eng Mech 20(1):33

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Zhang LL, Li J, Peng YB (2008) Dynamic response and reliability analysis of tall buildings subject to wind loading. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 96(1):25–40

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Shinozuka M (1972) Monte-Carlo solution of structural dynamics. Comput Struct 2(5):855–874

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Dai HZ, Zhang H, Wang W et al (2012) Structural reliability assessment by local approximation of limit state functions using adaptive markov chain simulation and support vector regression. Comput-aided Civ Infrastruct Eng 27(9):676–686

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Dai HZ, Cao ZG (2017) A wavelet support vector machine-based neural network metamodel for structural reliability assessment. Comput-aided Civ Infrastruct Eng 32(4):344–357

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Huang MF, Xu Q, Xu HW et al (2018) Probabilistic assessment of vibration exceedance for a full-scale tall building under typhoon conditions. Struct Des Tall Sp Build 27(15):1:21

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Shinozuka M, Jan CM (1972) Digital simulation of random processes and its application. J Sound Vib 25(1):111–128

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Yang JN (1972) Simulation of random envelope process. J Sound Vib 25(1):73–85

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Iwatani Y (1982) Simulation of multidimensional wind fluctuations having any arbitrary power spectra and cross spectra. J Wind Eng 11(1):5–18

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Song J, Xu W, Hu G et al (2019) Non-Gaussian properties and their effects on extreme values of wind pressure on the roof of long-span structures. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 184:106–115

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Huang MF, Huang S, Feng H et al (2016) Non-Gaussian time-dependent statistics of wind pressure processes on a roof structure. Wind Struct 23(4):275–300

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Gurley KR (1996) Kareem A (1996) Simulation of a class of non-normal random processes. Int J Non-Linear Mech 31(5):601–617

    MATH  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Huang MF, Lou W, Pan X et al (2014) Hermite extreme value estimation of non-Gaussian wind load process on a long-span roof structure. J Struct Eng 140(9):04014061

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Huang MF, Sun XT, Feng H et al (2018) Numerical simulation of wind pressure field of long-span lattice structures based on wind pressure spectra and Hermite model. J Vib Shock 37(23):111–119 ((In Chinese))

    Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Scheme G (1983) On the force fluctuations acting on a circular cylinder in crossflow from subcritical up to transcritical Reynolds number. J Fluid Mech 133(1):265–285

    Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Clough RW, Penzien J (1993) Dynamics of structures. McGRaw-Hill, New York

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Huang MF, Chan CM, Kwok KC et al (2009) Cross correlations of modal responses of tall buildings in wind-induced lateral-torsional motion. J Eng Mech 135(8):802–812

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Carassale L, Solari G (2002) Wind modes for structural dynamics: a continuous approach. Probab Eng Mech 17(2):157–166

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Wen YK (1983) Wind direction and structural reliability. J Struct Eng 109(4):1028–1041

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Simiu E, Filliben JJ (2005) Wind tunnel testing and the sector-by-sector approach to wind directionality effects. J Struct Eng 131(7):1143–1145

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Schölzel C, Friederichs P (2008) Multivariate non-normally distributed random variables in climate research—introduction to the copula approach. Nonlinear Process Geophys 15(5):761–772

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Huang MF, Li Q, Tu ZB et al (2018) Multi-directional extreme wind speed estimation in Hangzhou using Copula functions. J Zhejiang Univ (Engineering Science) 52(5):828–835 (in Chinese)

    Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Nelson RB (2006) An Introduction to Copulas. Springer Series in Statistics, New York

    Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Huang MF, Tu ZB, Li Q et al (2017) Dynamic wind load combination for a tall building based on copula functions. Int J Struct Stab Dyn 17(08):1–24

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Zhang XX, Chen XZ (2015) Assessing probabilistic wind load effects via a multivariate extreme wind speed model: A unified framework to consider directionality and uncertainty. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 147:30–42

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Zhang XX, Chen XZ (2016) Influence of dependence of directional extreme wind speeds on wind load effects with various mean recurrence intervals. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 148:45–56

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Zeng XX, Ren JC, Sun M et al (2014) Copulas for statistical signal processing (Part II): simulation, optimal selection and practical applications. Signal Process 94:681–690

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Rubinstein RY (1981) Simulation and the Monte-Carlo method. Wiley, New York

    MATH  Book  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Wu YC, Chen XZ (2020) Identification of nonlinear aerodynamic damping from stochastic crosswind response of tall buildings using unscented Kalman filter technique. Eng Struct 220:1–15

    Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Yang JN, Lei Y, Lin SL et al (2004) Identification of natural frequencies and dampings of in situ tall building using ambient wind vibration data. J Eng Mech 130(5):570–577

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Lagomarsino S (1993) Forecast models for damping and vibration periods of buildings. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 48(2–3):221–239

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Liu XQ, Zhang JD, Zhang J et al (2020) Damping characteristics of aluminum alloy single layer spherical latticed shell. J Hunan Univ (Natural Sciences) 47(7):84–92 ((In Chinese))

    Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Huang MF, Chan CM, Lou WJ (2012) Optimal performance-based design of wind sensitive tall buildings considering uncertainties. Comput Struct 98–99:7–16

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Daw DJ, Davenport AG (1989) Aerodynamic damping and stiffness of a semi-circular roof in turbulent wind. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 32(1–2):83–92

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Ohkuma T, Martikawa H (2010) Mechanism of aeroelastically unstable vibration of large span roof. J Wind Eng 1990(42):35–42

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Li T, Yang Q, Ishihara T (2018) Unsteady aerodynamic characteristics of long-span roofs under forced excitation. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 181:46–60

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Au SK (2001) On the solution of first excursion problems by simulation with applications to probabilistic seismic performance assessment. Ph.D. thesis, California Institute of Technology.

Download references


The work described in this paper was partially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Project Nos. 51838012 and 52178512), and Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Project No. 2018YFE0109500).

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mingfeng Huang.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Huang, M., Tang, G. & Ni, YQ. Reliability assessment of a building complex with four long-span roof structures based on wind tunnel experiments. J Civil Struct Health Monit 11, 1461–1475 (2021).

Download citation


  • Reliability assessment
  • Wind tunnel test
  • Monte-Carlo simulation
  • Non-Gaussian