Skip to main content
Log in

Long-term structural monitoring of the damaged Basilica S. Maria di Collemaggio through a low-cost wireless sensor network

  • Original Paper
  • Published:
Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

The work presents the inter-disciplinary multi-year project focused on the permanent seismic monitoring of a historical structure, the Basilica S. Maria di Collemaggio, by means of an advanced wireless sensor network. Considered among the architectural masterpieces of the Italian Romanesque, the structural behaviour of the monumental masonry church is strongly debated after the heavy damages and the partial collapse that occurred during the 2009 L’Aquila earthquake. From the perspective of information technology, critical issues in the wireless data acquisition and communication are analysed. The sensor network design, deployment and performance are discussed with respect to the high-demanding service requirements—as well as the non-negligible management costs—specifically related to the long-term monitoring of a monumental masonry structure in a seismic area. From the perspective of experimental signal analysis, the acceleration data collected during a 3-year period of seismic monitoring are analysed in the frequency and time domains. The results allow the clear detection of complex interactions between the masonry structures and some of the temporary protective installations. Stochastic subspace identification procedures are applied, with critical analysis of their effectiveness in the assessment of reliable modal models from the building response to real seismic events. Finally, the robustness of the modal identification obtained from the structural responses to different near- and far-field micro-earthquakes is discussed, with the aid of numerical models of the damaged and protected church configuration.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. Akyldiz IF, Su W, Sankarasubramaniam Y, Cayirci E (2002) Wireless sensor networks: a survey. Comput Netw 38:393–422

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Spencer BF, Ruiz-Sandoval Manuel E, Kurata N (2004) Smart sensing technology: opportunities and challenges. Struct Control Health Monit 11:349–368

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Lynch JP, Loh K (2006) A summary review of wireless sensors and sensor networks for structural health monitoring. Shock Vib 38(2):91–128

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Spencer BF, Chung-Bang Y (eds) (2010) Wireless sensor advances and applications for civil infrastructure monitoring, Newmark Structural Engineering Laboratory Report Series, No. 24. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois. http://hdl.handle.net/2142/16434, 14 July 2010

  5. Zonta D, Wu H, Pozzi M, Zanon P, Ceriotti M, Mottola L, Picco GP, Murphy AL, Guna S, Corrà M (2010) Wireless sensor networks for permanent health monitoring of historic buildings. Smart Struct Syst 6(5–6):595–618

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Rice JA, Mechitov KA, Sim SH, Spencer BF Jr, Agha GA (2011) Enabling framework for structural health monitoring using smart sensors. Struct Control Health Monit 18:574–587

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Linderman LE, Mechitov KA, Spencer BF Jr (2013) TinyOS-based real-time wireless data acquisition framework for structural health monitoring and control. Struct Control Health Monit 20(6):1007–1020

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Capecchi D, Rega G, Vestroni F (1980) A study of the effect of stiffness distribution on nonlinear seismic response of multi-degree-of-freedom structures. Eng Struct 2:244–252

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Beck JL, Jennings PC (1980) Structural identification using linear models and earthquake records. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 8(2):145–160

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Juang JN, Pappa RS (1985) An eigensystem realization algorithm for model parameter identification and model reduction. J Guid Control Dyn 8(5):620–627

    Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  11. Ghanem R, Shinozuka M (1995) Structural-system identification. I: theory, II: experimental verification. J Eng Mech ASCE 121(2):255–273

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Van Overschee P, De Moor B (1996) Subspace identification for linear systems: theory-implementation-applications. Kluwer, Dordrecht

    Book  MATH  Google Scholar 

  13. Lus H, Betti R, Longman RW (1999) Identification of linear structural systems using earthquake-induced vibration data. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 28(11):1449–1467

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Peeters B, De Roeck G (1999) Reference-based stochastic subspace identification for output-only modal analysis. Mech Syst Signal Process 13(6):855–878

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Peeters B, De Roeck G (2001) Stochastic system identification for operational modal analysis: a review. J Dyn Syst Meas Contr 123(12):659–667

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Antonacci E, De Stefano A, Gattulli V, Lepidi M, Matta E (2012) Comparative study of vibration-based parametric identification techniques for a three-dimensional frame structure. Struct Control Health Monit 19(5):579–608

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Reynders E, De Roeck G (2008) Reference-based combined deterministic–stochastic subspace identification for experimental and operational modal analysis. Mech Syst Signal Process 22:617–637

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Gattulli V, Antonacci E, Vestroni F (2013) Field observations and failure analysis of the basilica S. Maria di Collemaggio after the 2009 L’Aquila earthquake. Eng Fail Anal 34:715–734

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Brandonisio G, Lucibello G, Mele E, De Luca A (2013) Damage and performance evaluation of masonry churches in the 2009 L’Aquila earthquake. Eng Fail Anal 34:693–714

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Arcidiacono V, Cimellaro GP, Ochsendorf JA (2015) Analysis of the failure mechanisms of the basilica of Santa Maria di Collemaggio during 2009 L’Aquila earthquake. Eng Struct 99:502–516

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Amoroso S, Gaudiosi I, Milana G, Tallini M (2013) Preliminary results of seismic response analyses at Santa Maria di Collemaggio Basilica (L’Aquila, Italy). In: Proceedings of 32nd conference Gruppo Nazionale di Geofisica della Terra Solida (GNGTS), Trieste, Italy

  22. Ceci AM, Contento A, Fanale L, Galeota D, Gattulli V, Lepidi M, Potenza F (2010) Structural performance of the historic and modern buildings of the University of L’Aquila during the seismic events of April 2009. Eng Struct 32(7):1899–1924

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Çelebi M (2002) Seismic instrumentation of buildings (with emphasis on federal buildings). Tech. Rep. 0-7460-68170, Geological Survey

  24. Russo S (2013) On the monitoring of historic Anime Sante church damaged by earthquake in L’Aquila. Struct Control Health Monit 20(9):1226–1239

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Russo S (2013) Testing and modelling of dynamic out-of-plane behaviour of the historic masonry facade of Palazzo Ducale in Venice, Italy. Eng Struct 46(1):130–139

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Pau A, Vestroni F (2013) Vibration assessment and structural monitoring of the Basilica of Maxentius in Rome. Mech Syst Signal Process 41(1–2):454–466

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Federici F, Graziosi F, Faccio M, Gattulli V, Lepidi M, Potenza F (2012) An integrated approach to the design of wireless sensor networks for structural health monitoring. Int J Distrib Sens Netw. Article ID 594842

  28. Lynch JP, Sundararajan A, Law KH, Kiremijdian AS, Carryer E, Sohn H, Farrar CR (2003) Field validation of a wireless structural health monitoring system on the Alamosa Canyon Bridge. Smart Struct Mater 5057:267–278

    Google Scholar 

  29. Lynch JP, Wang Y, Law KH, Yi JH, Lee GC, Yun CB (2005) Validation of a large-scale wireless structural monitoring system on the Geumdang Bridge. In: Proceedings of the international conference on safety and structural reliability (ICOSSAR), Rome, Italy

  30. Jang S, Jo H, Cho S, Mechitov K, Rice JA, Sim S, Jung H, Yun C, Spencer BF Jr, Agha G (2010) Structural health monitoring of a cable-stayed bridge using smart sensor technology: deployment and evaluation. Smart Struct Syst 6(5–6):439–459

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Kim S, Pakzad S, Culler D, Demmel J, Fenves G, Glaser S, Turon M (2007) Health monitoring of civil infrastructures using wireless sensor networks. In: Proceedings of the 6th international conference on information processing in sensor networks, Cambridge, Massachusetts

  32. Aguilar R, Ramos LF, Lourenco P, Severino R, Gomes R, Gandra P, Alves M, Tovar E (2011) Operational modal monitoring of ancient structures using wireless technology. In: Dynamics of civil structures, conference proceedings of the society for experimental mechanics series 4, pp 247–256

  33. Gattulli V, Potenza F, Graziosi F, Federici F, Colarieti A, Faccio M (2014) Design of wireless sensor nodes for structural health monitoring applications. Procedia Eng 87:1298–1301. International the 28th European conference on solid-state transducers, EUROSENSORS 2014, 7–10 Sep 2014, Brescia, Italy

  34. Federici F, Alesii R, Colarieti A, Graziosi F, Faccio M (2013) Design and validation of a wireless sensor node for long term structural health monitoring. In: Proceedings of IEEE sensors 2013, Baltimore, USA

  35. Gattulli V, Potenza F, Federici F, Graziosi F, Colarieti A, Faccio M (2013) Distributed structural monitoring for a smart city in a seismic area. Key Eng Mater 628:123–135

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Reynders E, François S, De Roeck G (2009) Operational modal analysis using ambient support excitation: an OMAX approach. In: Proceedings of 3rd international operational modal analysis conference (IOMAC), Portonovo, Italy

  37. Kim J, Lynch JP (2012) Subspace system identification of support-excited structures—part I: theory and black box system identification. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 41:2235–2251

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Loh CH, Chao SH, Weng JH, Wu TH (2014) Application of subspace identification technique to long-term seismic response monitoring of structures. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn. doi:10.1002/eqe.2475

    Google Scholar 

  39. Siringoringo DM, Fujino Y (2014) Seismic response analyses of an asymmetric base-isolated building during the 2011 Great East Japan (Tohoku) Earthquake. Struct Control Health Monit. doi:10.1002/stc.1661

    Google Scholar 

  40. Derkevorkian A, Masri SF, Fijino Y, Siringoringo M (2012) Development and validation of nonlinear computational models of dispersed structures under strong earthquake excitation. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 43(7):1089–1105

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Benveniste A, Fuchs JJ (1985) Single sample modal identification of a nonstationary stochastic process. IEEE Trans Autom Control 30(1):66–74

    Article  MATH  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  42. Reynders E, Pintelon R, De Roeck G (2008) Uncertainty bounds on modal parameters obtained from stochastic subspace identification. Mech Syst Signal Process 22(4):948–969

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Foti D, Gattulli V, Potenza F (2014) Output-only identification and model updating by dynamic testing in unfavorable conditions of a seismically damaged building. Comput Aided Civil Infrastruct Eng 29(9):659–675

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The research leading to these results has received funding from the Italian Government under Cipe resolution no. 135 (Dec. 21, 2012), project INnovating City Planning through Information and Communication Technologies. The authors would like to thank the Italian Ministry of Education, Universities and Research (MIUR) through the PRIN funded program “Dynamics, Stability and Control of Flexible Structures” (grant number 2010MBJK5B).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Francesco Potenza.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Potenza, F., Federici, F., Lepidi, M. et al. Long-term structural monitoring of the damaged Basilica S. Maria di Collemaggio through a low-cost wireless sensor network. J Civil Struct Health Monit 5, 655–676 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13349-015-0146-3

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13349-015-0146-3

Keywords

Navigation