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Nanoassemblies from the aqueous extract of roasted coffee beans modulate the behavioral and molecular effects of smoking withdrawal–induced anxiety in female rats

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Abstract

Antioxidant-rich plant extracts have demonstrated tremendous value as inflammatory modulators and as nanomaterial precursors. Chronic cigarette smoking alters neurotransmitter systems, particularly the glutamatergic system, and produces neuroinflammation. This study aimed to investigate the behavioral and molecular correlates of cigarette smoking withdrawal–induced anxiety-like behavior in rats, and whether these effects could be mitigated by the administration of antioxidant nanoassemblies prepared by spontaneous oxidation of dark-roasted Arabica coffee bean aqueous extracts. Four experimental groups of female Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly assigned to: (i) a control group that was only exposed to room air, (ii) a COF group that was administered 20 mg/kg of the coffee nanoassemblies by oral gavage, (iii) a SMOK group that was exposed to cigarette smoke and was given an oral gavage of distilled water, (iv) and a SMOK + COF group that was exposed to cigarette smoke and administered 20 mg/kg of the coffee nanoassemblies. Animals were exposed to cigarette smoke for 2 h per day, five days per week, with a 2-day withdrawal period each week. At the end of the 4th week, rats began receiving either distilled water or the coffee nanoassemblies before being exposed to cigarette smoke for 21 additional days. Weekly behavioral tests revealed that cigarette smoking withdrawal exacerbated anxiety, while the administration of the coffee nanoassemblies reduced this effect. The effect of cigarette smoking on astroglial glutamate transporters and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) expression in brain subregions was also measured. Smoking reduced the relative mRNA and protein levels of the glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) and the cystine/glutamate antiporter (xCT), and increased the levels of NF-κB, but these effects were attenuated by the coffee nanoassemblies. Thus, administration of the antioxidant nanoassemblies decreased the negative effects of cigarette smoke, which included neuroinflammation, changes in glutamate transporters’ expression, and a rise in anxiety-like behavior.

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All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this published article and its supplementary information files.

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Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Dr. Vanessa Lux, Department of Genetic Psychology, Ruhr-University Bochum, for valuable discussions.

Funding

This work was supported by Al-Zaytoonah University of Jordan (grants no. 26/12/2019–2020 and 14/08/2021–2022) and the Arab-German Young Academy of Sciences and Humanities (AGYA). AGYA draws on support from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF; grant no. 01DL20003).

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All authors contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation, data collection, and analysis were performed by Alaa M. Hammad, Lujain Alzaghari, and Malek Alfaraj. The first draft of the manuscript was written by Alaa M. Hammad, Lujain F. Alzaghari, and Suhair Sunoqrot. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Suhair Sunoqrot.

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The housing and treatments of animals used in this study were in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The study protocol was approved by the Animal Use and Care Committee of Al-Zaytoonah University of Jordan (decision no. 26/12/2019–2020).

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Hammad, A.M., Alzaghari, L.F., Alfaraj, M. et al. Nanoassemblies from the aqueous extract of roasted coffee beans modulate the behavioral and molecular effects of smoking withdrawal–induced anxiety in female rats. Drug Deliv. and Transl. Res. 13, 1967–1982 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13346-023-01331-w

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