Drug Delivery and Translational Research

, Volume 8, Issue 6, pp 1615–1634 | Cite as

Roller compaction: the effect of plastic deformation of primary particles with wide range of mechanical properties

  • Riyadh B. Al AsadyEmail author
  • Mike J. Hounslow
  • Agba D. Salman
Original Article


Understanding the compaction behaviour of the primary powder in the roller compaction process is necessary to be able to better control the quality of the product. In this study, the plastic deformation of the primary particles was evaluated by determining two mechanical properties: the nano-indentation hardness and the viscoelasticity of the primary powder. The nano-indentation hardness of eight different materials with a wide range of mechanical properties was determined by indenting the surface of the single primary particle, whereas the viscoelasticity was evaluated for a powder bed using the creep test. These were linked to fundamental ribbon properties such as ribbon strength and width in addition to the amount of fines. It was identified that the plastic deformation of the material had the potential to provide an indication for the ability of the primary powder to produce a good ribbon. For the range of the investigated process parameters, the optimum hardness range that produced ribbons with ideal properties and small amount of fines was suggested.


Roller compaction Plastic deformation Nano-indentation hardness Viscoelasticity Creep test 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    Kleinebudde P. Roll compaction/dry granulation: pharmaceutical applications. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2004;58:317–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Guigon P, et al. Roll pressing, Handbook of powder technology. Amesterdam: Elsevier; 2007. p. 255–88.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Buckton G. Intermolecular bonding forces, pharmaceutical powder compaction technology. 2nd ed. Belle Mead: CRC Press; 2012. p. 1–8.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Atkins AG, Mai YW. Deformation transitions. J Mater Sci. 1986;21:1093–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Roberts RJ, Rowe RC. Brittle/ductile behaviour in pharmaceutical materials used in tabletting. Int J Pharm. 1987;36:205–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Roberts RJ, Rowe RC, Kendall K. Brittle-ductile transitions in die compaction of sodium chloride. Chem Eng Sci. 1989;44:1647–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Franks GV, Lange FF. Mechanical behavior of saturated, consolidated, alumina powder compacts: effect of particle size and morphology on the plastic-to-brittle transition. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp. 1999;146:5–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Larsson I, Kristensen HG. Comminution of a brittle/ductile material in a micros ring mill. Powder Technol. 2000;107:175–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Holman LE. The compaction behaviour of particulate materials. An elucidation based on percolation theory. Powder Technol. 1991;66:265–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Armstrong NA. Time-dependent factors involved in powder compression and tablet manufacture. Int J Pharm. 1989;49:1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Antikainen O, Yliruusi J. Determining the compression behaviour of pharmaceutical powders from the force–distance compression profile. Int J Pharm. 2003;252:253–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Leuenberger H. The compressibility and compactibility of powder systems. Int J Pharm. 1982;12:41–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Freitag F, Kleinebudde P. How do roll compaction/dry granulation affect the tableting behaviour of inorganic materials? Comparison of four magnesium carbonates. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2003;19:281–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    He X, Secreast PJ, Amidon GE. Mechanistic study of the effect of roller compaction and lubricant on tablet mechanical strength. J Pharm Sci. 2007;96:1342–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bozic DZ, Dreu R, Vrecer F. Influence of dry granulation on compactibility and capping tendency of macrolide antibiotic formulation. Int J Pharm. 2008;357:44–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Patel S, Kaushal AM, Bansal AK. Compaction behavior of roller compacted ibuprofen. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2008;69:743–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sonnergaard JM. A critical evaluation of the Heckel equation. Int J Pharm. 1999;193:63–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Askeland DR, editor. The science and engineering of materials, Third S.I ed. Cheltenham,UK: Stanely Thomas Ltd.; 1998.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fischer-Cripps AC. Nanoindentation: mechanical engineering series 1. New York: Springer Verlag; 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hysitron. TS 70 TriboScope®, USA, 2013.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Oliver WC, Pharr GM. Measurement of hardness and elastic modulus by instrumented indentation: advances in understanding and refinements to methodology. J Mater Res. 2004;19:3–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Oliver WC, Pharr GM. An improved technique for determining hardness and elastic modulus using load and displacement sensing indentation experiments. J Mater Res. 1992;7:1564–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    D. Schulze. Discussion of testers and test procedures. Powders and bulk solids: behavior, characterization, storage and flow. 2008;–198.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Schulze D. Powders and bulk solids : behavior, characterization, storage and flow. Berlin New York: Springer; 2010.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    A. Jenike. Storage and flow of solids. Buletin of the University of Utah. 1964.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sonnergaard JM. Quantification of the compactibility of pharmaceutical powders. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2006;63:270–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Prigge Jd, et al. Numerical investigation of stress distribution during die compaction of food powders. Part Sci Technol. 2011;29:40–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Palzer S. Influence of material properties on the agglomeration of water-soluble amorphous particles. Powder Technol. 2009;189:318–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Harirtian I, et al. Determination of mechanical strength same material double-layer rectangular tablets. DARU J Pharm Sci. 2000;8:22–7.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Osborne JD, Althaus T, Forny L, Niederreiter G, Palzer S, Hounslow MJ, et al. Investigating the influence of moisture content and pressure on the bonding mechanisms during roller compaction of an amorphous material. Chem Eng Sci. 2013;86:61–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rumpf H. Baisc principles and method of granulation Che. Eng Tech. 1958;30:144.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    M. Celik, Pharmaceutical powder compaction technology, 2nd ed./[edited by] Metin ßelik. ed., Informa Healthcare, 2011, London, 2011.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rubinstein MH. Tablets. In: Aulton ME, editor. Pharmaceutics:the science of dosage form design. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 1988. p. 304–21.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    B. Michel. Compactage en presse a rouleaux de poudres minerales. Universite de Compiegne. 1994.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cunningham JC, Winstead D, Zavaliangos A. Understanding variation in roller compaction through finite element-based process modeling. Comput Chem Eng. 2010;34:1058–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Miguélez-Morán AM, Wu CY, Dong H, Seville JPK. Characterisation of density distributions in roller-compacted ribbons using micro-indentation and X-ray micro-computed tomography. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2009;72:173–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    S. Yu. Roll compaction of parmaceutical excpients. Birmingham: School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Birmingham; 2012, pp. 227.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Inghelbrecht S, Remon JP. Reducing dust and improving granule and tablet quality in the roller compaction process. Int J Pharm. 1998;171:195–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Miguélez-Morán AM, Wu CY, Seville JPK. The effect of lubrication on density distributions of roller compacted ribbons. Int J Pharm. 2008;362:52–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lim H, Dave VS, Kidder L, Neil Lewis E, Fahmy R, Hoag SW. Assessment of the critical factors affecting the porosity of roller compacted ribbons and the feasibility of using NIR chemical imaging to evaluate the porosity distribution. Int J Pharm. 2011;410:1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Muliadi AR, Litster JD, Wassgren CR. Validation of 3-D finite element analysis for predicting the density distribution of roll compacted pharmaceutical powder. Powder Technol. 2013;237:386–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Parrott EL. Densification of powders by concavo-convex roller compactor. J Pharm Sci. 1981;70:288–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Rue PJ, REES JE. Limitations of Heckel relation for predicting powder compaction mechanisms. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1978;30:642–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Palzer S. Agglomeration of pharmaceutical, detergent, chemical and food powders—similarities and differences of materials and processes. Powder Technol. 2011;206:2–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Chang C, et al. Roller compaction, granulation and capsule product dissolution of drug formulations containing a lactose or mannitol filler, starch, and talc. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2008;9:597–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    A. Karimi, M. Navidbakhsh, A.M. Haghi. An experimental study on the structural and mechanical properties of polyvinyl alcohol sponge using different stress–strain definitions. Adv Polym Technol. 2014;33.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Wang Y, et al. Tensile behaviour and strength distribution of polyvinyl-alcohol fibre at high strain rates. Appl Compos Mater. 2001;8:297–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Heiman J, Tajarobi F, Gururajan B, Juppo A, Abrahmsén-Alami S. Roller compaction of hydrophilic extended release tablets—combined effects of processing variables and drug/matrix former particle size. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2015;16:267–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Wu CY, Hung WL, Miguélez-Morán AM, Gururajan B, Seville JPK. Roller compaction of moist pharmaceutical powders. Int J Pharm. 2010;391:90–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Controlled Release Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Riyadh B. Al Asady
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mike J. Hounslow
    • 1
  • Agba D. Salman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemical and Biological EngineeringUniversity of SheffieldSheffieldUK

Personalised recommendations