The incorporation of bFGF mediated by heparin into PCL/gelatin composite fiber meshes for guided bone regeneration
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The concept of guided bone regeneration facilitated by barrier membranes has been widely considered to achieve enhanced bone healing in maxillofacial surgery. However, the currently available membranes are limited in their active regulation of cellular activities. In this study, we fabricated polycaprolactone/gelatin composite electrospun nanofibers incorporated with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) to direct bone regeneration. The fibrous morphology was maintained after the crosslinking and subsequent conjugation of heparin. Release of bFGF from electrospun nanofibers without heparin resulted in a spontaneous burst, while the heparin-mediated release of bFGF decreased the burst release in 24 h. The bFGF released from the nanofibers enhanced the proliferation and migration of human mesenchymal stem cells as well as the tubule formation of human umbilical cord blood cells. The subcutaneous implantation of fibers incorporated with bFGF mobilized a large number of cells positive for CD31 and smooth muscle alpha actin within 2 weeks. The effect of the nanofibers incorporated with bFGF on bone regeneration was evaluated on a calvarial critical size defect model. As compared to the mice that received fibers without bFGF, which presented minimal new bone formation (5.36 ± 3.4 % of the defect), those that received implants of heparinized nanofibers incorporated with 50 or 100 ng/mL bFGF significantly enhanced new bone formation (10.82 ± 2.2 and 17.55 ± 6.08 %). Taken together, our results suggest that the electrospun nanofibers incorporating bFGF have the potential to be used as an advanced membrane that actively enhances bone regeneration.
KeywordsElectrospun Basic fibroblast growth factor Mesenchymal stem cells Guided bone regeneration Growth factor delivery
This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea grant funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (20120005338).
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