Skip to main content
Log in

Wave energy estimation by using a statistical analysis and wave buoy data near the southern Caspian Sea

China Ocean Engineering Aims and scope Submit manuscript


Statistical analysis was done on simultaneous wave and wind using data recorded by discus-shape wave buoy. The area is located in the southern Caspian Sea near the Anzali Port. Recorded wave data were obtained through directional spectrum wave analysis. Recorded wind direction and wind speed were obtained through the related time series as well. For 12-month measurements (May 25 2007–2008), statistical calculations were done to specify the value of nonlinear auto-correlation of wave and wind using the probability distribution function of wave characteristics and statistical analysis in various time periods. The paper also presents and analyzes the amount of wave energy for the area mentioned on the basis of available database. Analyses showed a suitable comparison between the amounts of wave energy in different seasons. As a result, the best period for the largest amount of wave energy was known. Results showed that in the research period, the mean wave and wind auto correlation were about three hours. Among the probability distribution functions, i.e Weibull, Normal, Lognormal and Rayleigh, “Weibull” had the best consistency with experimental distribution function shown in different diagrams for each season. Results also showed that the mean wave energy in the research period was about 49.88 kW/m and the maximum density of wave energy was found in February and March, 2010.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Institutional subscriptions


  • Allahyar, M., Kebriaei, A., Dibajnia, M. and Aghajani, F., 2008. Optimum network of marine characteristics measurement of Iranian waters, Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Coasts, Ports and Marine Structures (ICOPMAS 2008), Tehran, Iran, 373–376.

    Google Scholar 

  • Boake, C. B., Whittaker, T. J. T., Folley, M. and Ellen, H., 2002. Overview and initial operational experience of the LIMPET wave energy plant, Proceedings of the 12th International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, Kitakyushu, Japan, 1, 586–594.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bowden, G. J., Dandy, G. C. and Maier, H. R., 2005. Input determination for neural network models in water resources application, part 1-background and methodology, J. Hydrol., 301, 75–92.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Clement, A., McCullen, P., Falcão, A., Fiorentino, A., Gardner, F., Hammarlund, K., Lemonis, G., Lewis, T., Nielsen, K., Petroncini, S., Pontes, M. T., Schild, P., Sjöström, B. O., Sørensen, H. C. and Thorp, T., 2002. Wave energy in Europe: Current status and perspectives, Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev., 6(5): 405–431.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Duckers, L. J., 1994. Wave Energy: Crest and troughs, Renewable Energy, 5(5): 1444–1452.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Falcão., A. F. D. O., 2010. Wave energy utilization: A review of the technologies, Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev., 14(3): 899–918.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kofoed, J. P., Frigaard, P., Friis-Madsen, E. and Sørensen, H. C., 2006. Prototype testing of the wave energy converter wave dragon, Renewable Energy, 31(2): 181–189.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lari, K., Poormandi, Y. A. and Mehdipour, F., 2000. Wind-generated waves forecasting based on analytical model and neural networks in Bushehr region, Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Coasts, Ports and Marine Structures (ICOPMAS 2000), Tehran, Iran, 112–119.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ochi, M. K., 1998. Ocean Waves: The Stochastic Approach, Cambridge University Press.

    Book  MATH  Google Scholar 

  • Parvaresh, A., Hassanzadeh, S. and Bordbar, M., 2005. Statistical analysis of wave parameters in the north coast of the Persian Gulf, Ann. Geophys., 23(6): 2031–2038.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ports and Maritime Organization (PMO), 2008a. Headquarters of shores and ports engineering, Waves modeling of Iranian waters, Waves forecasting, 1992–2003, Vol. 1, Persian Gulf and Oman Sea.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ports and Maritime Organization (PMO), 2008b. Headquarters of shores and ports engineering, Waves modeling of Iranian waters, Waves forecasting, 1992–2003, Vol. 2, Caspian Sea.

    Google Scholar 

  • Waters, R., Stålberg, M., Danielsson, O., Svensson, O., Gustafsson, S., Strömstedt, E., Eriksson, M., Sundberg, J. and Leijon, M., 2007. Experimental results from sea trials of an offshore wave energy system, Appl. Phys. Lett., 90(3): 034105.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to M. A. Badri.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Zamani, A.R., Badri, M.A. Wave energy estimation by using a statistical analysis and wave buoy data near the southern Caspian Sea. China Ocean Eng 29, 275–286 (2015).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:

Key words