A pilot study of short-term toe resistance training in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
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The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the effect of short-term toe resistance training on toe pinch force and toe muscle quality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
A total of 12 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were hospitalized to improve glycemic control (8 men and 4 women, duration of diabetes 12.2 ± 9.5 years) were enrolled in this pilot study. Exercise therapy was performed with conventional aerobic exercise and four newly developed toe resistance training exercises for 2 weeks. Changes in anthropometric parameters, blood pressure (BP), heart rate, and muscle parameters, i.e. muscle mass, toe pinch force and toe muscle quality were evaluated after the exercise program.
There were no significant differences of body weight, body mass index, BP, heart rate, and upper/lower muscle mass after exercise performance. However, toe pinch force was significantly increased (pre: 2.92 ± 1.19 kg, post: 3.65 ± 1.58 kg, p = 0.007). Toe muscle quality (toe pinch force/lower leg muscle mass) were also significantly increased (pre: 2.15 ± 0.86 kg/kg, post: 2.72 ± 1.26 kg/kg, p = 0.009).
Two weeks of toe resistance training significantly increased toe pinch force and toe muscle quality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Toe resistance training is might be essential for treating patients with diabetes mellitus in clinical practice.
KeywordsType 2 diabetes mellitus Toe resistance training Toe pinch force Toe muscle quality
This research was supported in part by research grants form 114 Bank, Japan.
Compliance with ethical standards
All authors declare no financial support or relationships that could pose a conflict of interest. All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1964 and later versions. Informed consent or substitute for it was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.
Conflict of interest
All authors declare no financial support or relationships that could pose a conflict of interest.
Human rights statement and informed consent
All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1964 and later versions. Informed consent or substitute for it was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.
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