Prevalence of rotavirus, norovirus and enterovirus in diarrheal diseases in Himachal Pradesh, India
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Diarrheal diseases are responsible for a significant proportion of mortality and morbidity all around the globe. The contribution of viruses to gastroenteritis incidences in humans is well established. In the present study, we have studied the prevalence of rotavirus, norovirus and enterovirus in Himachal Pradesh, a north Indian state. A total of 287 (111 children and 176 adults) stool samples of gastroenteritis patients were screened for the viruses using RT-PCR method. 34.5 % samples were positive for the viral pathogens of gastroenteritis. Rotavirus was the predominant virus detected in the study with 49.5 and 14.8 % positivity in children and adults, respectively. Enterovirus was present in 5.6 % cases whereas norovirus had least prevalence (1.4 %). Co infection (rotavirus and enterovirus) was witnessed at the prevalence rate of 0.6 %. Among different age groups, the prevalence of studied viruses was highest in the children belonging to the age groups of <5 years. Rotavirus infections were found to be significantly associated with vomiting and trend of higher rates of fever and dehydration was seen in children along with diarrhea. Seasonal distribution shows circulation of diarrheagenic viruses throughout the year. This is the first report of prevalence of various diarrheagenic viruses circulating in this region. The outcome of the study from this cohort provides a baseline data which can be used to design the preventive strategies in the otherwise unexplored state of Himachal Pradesh.
KeywordsViral Gastroenteritis Diarrhea RT-PCR Rotavirus Norovirus Enterovirus
HC is thankful to Department of Science and Technology, Government of India and Department of Biotechnology, Government of India, respectively, for the grants SB/FT/LS-440/2012 and BT/PR6784/GBD/27/466/2012. JV is thankful to Indian Council of Medical Research for grant 5/9-1(26) 2011-12 ECD-II. SJ is thankful to Jaypee University of Information Technology, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India and Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India for Junior and Senior Research Fellowships, respectively.
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