The development of micro-fabrication and micro-assembly technology is indispensable for the future manufacturing of miniaturized, functional, and integrated devices. This paper proposes a planar micro-assembly technology to make the assembly of micro-objects easier. Firstly, delicate three-dimensional (3D) structures were fabricated on glass and silicon slice substrates using femtosecond laser two-photon polymerization (2PP). Secondly, transparent fluorescent scintillation ceramic powder, referred to as fluorescent powder, was assembled using a laboratory-made 3D moving heating micro-operator into a microstructure on a glass substrate, and this device is used to assemble the graphene powder into the microstructure on the silicon slice substrate. The fluorescence spectra and Raman spectra characterizations of the fluorescent powder and graphene powder in the microstructure were carried out by using excitation light at 405 nm and 532 nm, respectively. According to the above results, it can be concluded that the powder properties of the fluorescent powder and graphene powder assembled into the microstructure were not changed. The experimental device could not only assemble many micron-sized powder materials into hollow microstructures of arbitrary shape but also joined microstructures with different materials and characteristics to form a complex hybrid microstructure system.
Y. L. Chen, F. Zhang, Q. Shan, and X. H. Zhang, “Application progress of precision forming technology in aerospace,” Material Science and Technology, 2013, 21(4): 57–64.
M. Mielke, “The hole story: Femtosecond manufacturing improves automobile fuel efficiency,” Laser Focus World, 2013, 49(11): 35–41.
L. D. Garza-García, L. M. Carrillo-Cocom, D. Araiz-Hernández, P. Soto-Vázquez, J. López-Meza, E. J. Tapia-Mejía, et al., “A biopharmaceutical plant on a chip: continuous micro-devices for the production of monoclonal antibodies,” Lab on A Chip, 2013, 13(7): 1243.
M. Khan, S. Mao, W. Li, and J. M. Lin, “Microfluidic devices in the fast-growing domain of single-cell analysis,” Chemistry — A European Journal, 2018, 24(58): 15398–15420.
G. Yang, J. A. Gaines, and B. J. Nelson, “A flexible experimental workcell for efficient and reliable wafer-level 3D micro-assembly,” in Proceedings of 2001 ICRA. IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (Cat. No.01CH37164), South Korea, May 21–26, 2001, pp. 133–138.
J. Köhler, S. I. Ksouri, C. Esen, and A. Ostendorf, “Optical screw-wrench for microassembly,” Microsystems and Nanoengineering, 2017, 3(1): 16083.
M. J. Villangca, D. Palima, A. R. Bañas, and J. Glückstad, “Light-driven micro-tool equipped with a syringe function,” Light: Science & Applications, 2016, 5(9): e16148.
A. B. Frazier, “Uses of polyimide for micromachining applications,” in Proceedings of IECON’94 — 20th Annual Conference of IEEE Industrial Electronics, Italy, Sept. 5–9, 1994, pp. 1483–1487.
K. Obata, A. EI-Tamer, L. Koch, U. Hinze, and B. N. Chichkov, “High-aspect 3D two-photon polymerization structuring with widened objective working range (WOW-2PP),” Light: Science & Applications, 2013, 2(12): e116.
U. Staudinger, G. Zyla, B. Krause, A. Janke, D. Fischer, C. Esen, et al., “Development of electrically conductive microstructures based on polymer/CNT nanocomposites via two-photon polymerization,” Microelectronic Engineering, 2017, 179: 48–55.
Q. Guo, R. Ghadiri, T. Weigel, A. Aumann, E. L. Gurevich, C. Esen, et al., “Comparison of in situ and ex situ methods for synthesis of two-photon polymerization polymer nanocomposites,” Polymers, 2014, 6(7): 2037–2050.
K. Zhang, K. Yang, S. Ai, and J. Xu, “Synthesis of novel cross-linked s-triazine-containing poly (aryl ether)s nanoparticles for biological fluorescent labeling,” Designed Monomers and Polymers, 2017, 20(1): 389–396.
D. Chu, X. Sun, Y. Hu, X. Dong, K. Yin, Z. Luo, et al., “Micro-channel etching characteristics enhancement by femtosecond laser processing high-temperature lattice in fused silica glass,” Chinese Optics Letters, 2017, 15(7): 071403.
B. Xu, W. Q. Du, J. W. Li, Y. L. Hu, L. Yang, C. C. Zhang, et al., “High efficiency integration of three-dimensional functional microdevices inside a microfluidic chip by using femtosecond laser multifoci parallel microfabrication,” Scientific Reports, 2016, 6: 19989.
A. Ostendorf and B. N. Chichkov, “Two-photon polymerization: a new approach to micromachining,” Photonics Spectra, 2006, 40(10): 72.
W. Xiong, Y. Liu, L. J. Jiang, Y. S. Zhou, D. W. Li, L. Jiang, et al., “Laser-directed assembly of aligned carbon nanotubes in three dimensions for multifunctional device fabrication,” Advanced Materials, 2016, 28(10): 2002–2009.
S. You, J. Li, W. Zhu, C. Yu, D. Mei, and S. Chen, “Nanoscale 3D printing of hydrogels for cellular tissue engineering,” Journal of Materials Chemistry B, 2018, 6(15): 2187–2197.
A. Oláh, H. Hillborg, and G. J. Vancso, “Hydrophobic recovery of UV/ozone treated poly (dimethylsiloxane): adhesion studies by contact mechanics and mechanism of surface modification,” Applied Surface Science, 2005, 239(3–4): 410–423.
N. Dechev, W. L. Cleghorn, and J. K. Mills, “Microassembly of 3-D microstructures using a compliant, passive microgripper,” Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 2004, 13(2): 176–189.
M. Gauthier, N. Chaillet, P. Régnier, and N. Chaillet, “Analysis of forces for micromanipulations in dry and liquid media,” Journal of Micromechatronics, 2008, 3(3): 389–413.
Y. Ando, “The effect of relative humidity on friction and pull-off forces measured on submicron-size asperity arrays,” Wear, 2000, 238(1): 12–19.
Z. Song, F. Quan, Y. Xu, M. Liu, L. Cui, and J. Liu, “Multifunctional N, S co-doped carbon quantum dots with pH-and thermo-dependent switchable fluorescent properties and highly selective detection of glutathione,” Carbon, 2016, 104: 169–178.
C. Wu and D. T. Chiu, “Highly fluorescent semiconducting polymer dots for biology and medicine,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 2013, 52(11): 3086–3109.
M. S. Dresselhaus, A. Jorio, M. Hofmann, G. Dresselhaus, and R. Saito, “Perspectives on carbon nanotubes and graphene Raman spectroscopy,” Nano Letters, 2010, 10(3): 751–758.
T. Kaplas, A. Matikainen, T. Nuutinen, S. Suvanto, P. Vahimaa, and Y. Svirko, “Scalable fabrication of the graphitic substrates for graphene-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Scientific Reports, 2017, 7(1): 8561.
W. Xiong, Y. S. Zhou, W. J. Hou, L. J. Jiang, Y. Gao, L. S. Fan, et al., “Direct writing of graphene patterns on insulating substrates under ambient conditions,” Scientific Reports, 2014, 4(7499): 4892.
We are grateful for the financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11704204 and 61604084) and the K. C. Wong Magna Fund in Ningbo University, China.
About this article
Cite this article
Xia, J., Ding, A., Wang, P. et al. Application of Heating Type Micro-Assembly Device in Two-Photon Micromachining. Photonic Sens (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13320-020-0599-9
- Two-photon polymerization