Single-Mode Modified Tapered Fiber Structure Functionalized With GO-PVA Composite Layer for Relative Humidity Sensing

Abstract

A sensitive tapered optical fiber sensor incorporating graphene oxide (GO) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composite film for the rapid measurement of changes in relative humidity was proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The sensing principle was based on the intensity modulation of the transmitted light induced by the refractive index changes of the sensitive coatings. The sensing region was obtained by tapering a section of single-mode optical fiber (SMF) from its original 125 µm diameter down to 9.03 µm. The tapered structure was then modified through deposition of GO/PVA nanocomposites by using the dip-coating technique. The field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the structure of the composite film. As evidenced by a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, the presence of oxygen functional groups (such as −OH and COOH) on the GO structure enabled the attachment of PVA molecules through hydrogen bonding and strong adhesion between GO/PVA layers. The performance of the sensor was tested over a wide range (20%RH to 99.9%RH) of relative humidity. The sensor showed a good response with its signal increasing linearly with the surrounding humidity. The tapered optical fiber sensor with the coating of GO/0.3g PVA achieved the highest sensitivity [0.5290RH (%)]. The stability, repeatability, reversibility, as well as response time of the designated sensor were also measured and analyzed.

References

  1. [1]

    H. Farahani, R. Wagiran, and M. N. Hamidon, “Humidity sensors principle, mechanism, and fabrication technologies: a comprehensive review,” Sensors, 2014, 14(5): 7881–7939.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. [2]

    T. Liu, Y. Wei, G. Song, Y. Li, J. Wang, Y. Ning, et al., “Advances of optical fiber sensors for coal mine safety monitoring applications,” in International Conference on Microwave and Photonics (ICMAP), India, Dec. 13–15, 2013, pp. 1–5.

  3. [3]

    D. R. Raj, S. Prasanth, T. V. Vineeshkumar, and C. Sudarsanakumar, “Ammonia sensing properties of tapered plastic optical fiber coated with silver nanoparticles/PVP/PVA hybrid,” Optics Communications, 2015, 340: 86–92.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. [4]

    K. K. K. Annamdas and V. G. M. Annamdas, “Review on developments in fiber optical sensors and applications,” in SPIE Defense, Security, and Sensing, USA, April 23, 2010, pp. 76770R-1–76770R-12.

  5. [5]

    J. Ascorbe, J. M. Corres, F. J. Arregui, and I. R. Matias, “Recent developments in fiber optics humidity sensors,” Sensors, 2017, 17(4): 893–915.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. [6]

    S. Novais, M. S. Ferreira, and J. L. Pinto, “Relative humidity fiber sensor based on multimode interferometer coated with agarose-gel,” Coatings, 2018, 8(12): 453–461.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. [7]

    C. Zhao, Q. Yuan, L. Fang, X. Gan, and J. Zhao, “High-performance humidity sensor based on a polyvinyl alcohol-coated photonic crystal cavity,” Optics Letters, 2016, 41(23): 5515–5518.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. [8]

    B. Deshkulkarni, L. R. Viannie, S. V. Ganachari, N. R. Banapurmath, and A. Shettar, “Humidity sensing using polyaniline/polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite blend,” in International Conference on Advances in Manufacturing, Materials and Energy Engineering (ICon MMEE 2018), India, March 2–3, 2018, pp. 1–8.

  9. [9]

    P. Wang, K. Ni, B. Wang, Q. Ma, and W. Tian, “A chitosan-coated humidity sensor based on Michelson interferometer with thin-core optical fiber,” in 2017 16th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks (ICOCN), China, Aug. 7–10, 2017, pp. 1–3.

  10. [10]

    J. Ascorbe, J. M. Corres, F. J. Arregui, and I. R. Matias, “Optical fiber humidity sensor based on a tapered fiber asymmetrically coated with indium tin oxide,” in Sensors, 2014 IEEE, Spain, Nov. 2–5, 2014, pp. 1916–1919.

  11. [11]

    X. Li, X. Chen, X. Chen, X. Ding, and X. Zhao, “High-sensitive humidity sensor based on graphene oxide with evenly dispersed multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, 2018, 207: 135–140.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. [12]

    M. Shojaee, Sh. Nasresfahani, M. K. Dordane, and M. H. Sheikhi, “Fully integrated wearable humidity sensor based on hydrothermally synthesized partially reduced graphene oxide,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 2018, 279: 448–456.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. [13]

    M. Donarelli and L. Ottaviano, “2D materials for gas sensing applications: a review on graphene oxide, MoS2, WS2 and phosphorene,” Sensors, 2018, 18(11): 3638–3682.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. [14]

    C. Sun, Q. Shi, M. S. Yazici, C. Lee, and Y. Liu, “Development of a highly sensitive humidity sensor based on a piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer array functionalized with graphene oxide thin film,” Sensors, 2018, 18(12): 4352–4363.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. [15]

    U. Stahl, A. Voigt, M. Dirschka, N. Barié, C. Richter, A. Waldbaur, et al., “Long-term stability of polymer-coated surface transverse wave sensors for the detection of organic solvent vapors,” Sensors, 2017, 17(11): 2529–2541.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. [16]

    M. Cano, U. Khan, T. Sainsbury, A. O’Neil, Z. Wang, I. T. McGovern, et al., “Improving the mechanical properties of graphene oxide based materials by covalent attachment of polymer chains,” Carbon, 2013, 52: 363–371.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. [17]

    L. Zhang, Z. Wang, C. Xu, Y. Li, J. Gao, W. Wang, et al., “High strength graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol composite hydrogels,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, 2011, 21(28): 10399–10406.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. [18]

    X. Yang, S. Shang, and L. Li, “Layer — structured poly (vinyl alcohol)/graphene oxide nanocomposites with improved thermal and mechanical properties,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2011, 120(3): 1355–1360.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. [19]

    A. A. R. Oliveiraa, V. S. Gomidea, M. F. Leiteb, H. S. Mansura, and M. M. Pereira, “Effect of polyvinyl alcohol content and after synthesis neutralization on structure, mechanical properties and cytotoxicity of sol-gel derived hybrid foams,” Materials Research, 2009, 12(2): 239–244.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. [20]

    T. Rattana, S. Chaiyakun, N. Watit-anun, N. Nuntawong, P. Chindaudom, S. Oaew, et al., “Preparation and characterization of graphene oxide nanosheets,” Procedia Engineering, 2012, 32: 759–764.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. [21]

    C. Thomsen and S. Reich, “Double resonant Raman scattering in graphite,” Physical Review Letters, 2000, 85(24): 5214–5217.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. [22]

    A. C. Ferrari and J. Robertson, “Interpretation of Raman spectra of disordered and amorphous carbon,” Physical Review B, 2000, 61(20): 14095–14107.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. [23]

    G. Sobon, J. Sotor, J. Jagiello, R. Kozinski, M. Zdrojek, M. Holdynski, et al., “Graphene oxide vs. reduced graphene oxide as saturable absorbers for Er-doped passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Optics Express, 2012, 20(17): 19463–19473.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. [24]

    R. Muzyka, S. Drewniak, T. Pustelny, M. Chrubasik, and G. Gryglewicz, “Characterization of graphite oxide and reduced graphene oxide obtained from different graphite precursors and oxidized by different methods using Raman spectroscopy,” Materials, 2018, 11(7): 1050–1064.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. [25]

    A. Tapetado, P. J. Pinzün, J. Zubia, and C. Vázquez, “Polymer optical fiber temperature sensor with dual-wavelength compensation of power fluctuations,” Journal of Lightwave Technology, 2015, 33(13): 2716–2723.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgment

The authors would like to thank Laser Centre, Ibnu-Sina Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research (ISI-SIR), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) for the support. This research work has been supported by UTM_TDR 06G13 research grant. Aneez SYUHADA and Muhammad Salleh SHAMSUDIN acknowledge the funding from the UTM Zamalah Scholarship Award supported by the School of Graduate Studies, UTM. The authors want to thank the critics of the anonymous reviewers and valuable suggestions for improving this manuscript.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Muhammad Safwan Abd. Aziz.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Syuhada, A., Shamsudin, M.S., Daud, S. et al. Single-Mode Modified Tapered Fiber Structure Functionalized With GO-PVA Composite Layer for Relative Humidity Sensing. Photonic Sens (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13320-020-0595-0

Download citation

Keywords

  • Humidity sensor
  • tapered optical fiber
  • Graphene Oxide
  • PVA