A new radiation-hard germano-silicate glass optical fiber with a pure silica glass buffer and a boron-doped silica glass inner cladding was fabricated for temperature sensor application based on the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) under γ-ray irradiation environment. The temperature dependences of optical attenuation at 1550.5 nm and Bragg reflection wavelength shift from 18 °C to 40 °C before the γ-ray irradiation were about 4.57×10−4 dB/ °C and 5.48 pm/ °C, respectively. The radiation-induced optical attenuation at 1550.5 nm and the radiation-induced Bragg reflection wavelength shift under the γ-ray irradiation with the total dose of 22.85kGy at 35 °C were about 0.03dB/m and 0.12nm, respectively, with the γ-ray irradiation sensitivity of 5.25×10−3 pm/Gy. The temperature and the γ-ray irradiation dependence of optical attenuation at 1550.5nm in the FBG written fiber with boron-doped silica glass inner cladding were about 6 times and 4 times lower than that in the FBG written fiber without boron-doped silica glass inner cladding under a temperature change from 18 °C to 40 °C and the γ-ray irradiation with the total dose of 22.85 kGy at 35 °C, respectively. Furthermore, the effect of temperature increase on the Bragg reflection wavelength of the FBG written fiber with boron-doped silica inner cladding was much larger about 1000 times than that of the γ-ray irradiation. However, no influence on the reflection power of the Bragg wavelengths and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) bandwidth under temperature and the γ-ray irradiation change was found. Also, after the γ-ray irradiation with the dose of 22.85kGy, no significant change in the refractive index was found but the residual stresses developed in the fiber were slightly relaxed or retained.
J. Shah, “Effects of environmental nuclear radiation on optical fibers,” Bell System Technical Journal, 1975, 54(7): 1207–1213.
E. J. Friebele, C. G. Askins, M. E. Gingerich, and K. J. Long, “Optical fiber waveguides in radiation environments, II,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions With Materials and Atoms, 1984, 1(2–3): 355–369.
S. Girard, J. Kuhnhenn, A. Gusarov, B. Brichard, M. Van Uffelen, Y. Ouerdane, et al., “Radiation effects on silica-based optical fibers: recent advances and future challenges,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 2013, 60(3): 2015–2036.
H. Henschel, O. Köhn, H. U. Schmidt, E. Bawirzanski, and A. Landers, “Optical fibres for high radiation dose environments,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 1994, 41(3): 510–516.
A. Iino and J. Tamura, “Radiation resistivity in silica optical fibers,” Journal of Lightwave Technology, 1998, 6(2): 145–149.
T. Shikama, T. Kakuta, M. Narui, T. Sagawa, N. Shamoto, T. Uramoto, et al., “Behavior of radiation-resistant optical fibers under irradiation in a fission reactor,” Journal of Nuclear Materials, 1994, 212–215(1): 421–425.
A. Honda, K. Toh, S. Nagata, B. Tsuchiya, and T. Shikama, “Effect of temperature and irradiation on fused silica optical fiber for temperature measurement,” Journal of Nuclear Materials, 2007, 1367–370(B): 1117–1121.
T. Kakuta, T. Shikama, M. Narui, and T. Sagawa, “Behavior of optical fibers under heavy irradiation,” Fusion Engineering and Design, 1998, 41(1–4): 201–205.
M. Shan, H. Wang, Z. Xu, N. Li, C. Chen, J. Shi, et al., “Synergetic improvement of mechanical properties and surface activities in γ-irradiation carbon fibers revealed by radial positioning spectroscopy and mechanical model,” Analytical Methods, 2018, 10(5): 496–503.
K. O. Hill and G. Meltz, “Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview,” Journal of Lightwave Technology, 1997, 15(8): 1263–1276.
S. J. Mihailov, “Fiber Bragg grating sensors for harsh environments,” Sensors, 2012, 12(2): 1898–1918.
A. I. Gusarov, F. Berghmans, A. F. Fernandez, O. Deparis, Y. Defosse, D. Starodubov, et al., “Behavior of fibre Bragg gratings under high total dose gamma radiation,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 2000, 47(3): 688–692.
A. F. Fernandez, B. Brichard, F. Berghmans, and M. Decréton, “Dose-rate dependencies in gamma-irradiated fiber Bragg grating filters,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 2002, 49(6): 2874–2878.
A. Gusarov, D. Kinet, C. Caucheteur, M. Wuilpart, and P. Mégret, “Gamma radiation induced short-wavelength shift of the Bragg peak in type I fiber gratings,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 2010, 57(6): 3775–3778.
A. Gusarov, S. Vasiliev, O. Medvedkov, I. Mckenzie, and F. Berghmans, “Stabilization of fiber Bragg gratings against gamma radiation,” in Proceeding of 2007 9th European Conference on Radiation and Its Effects on Components and Systems, Deauville, France, 2007.
K. Fujita, A. Kimura, M. Nakazawa, and H. Takahashi, “Bragg peak shifts of fiber Bragg gratings in radiation environment,” in Proceedings of SPIE 4204, Fiber Optic Sensor Technology II, Boston, MA, USA, 2000, pp: 184–191.
D. Grobnic, H. Henschel, S. K. Hoeffgen, J. Kuhnhenn, S. J. Mihailov, and U. Weinand, “Radiation sensitivity of Bragg gratings written with femtosecond IR lasers,” in Proceedings of SPIE 7316, Fiber Optic Sensors and Applications VI, Orlando, Florida, USA, 2009, pp: 73160C-1–73160C-9.
S. K. Hoeffgen, H. Henschel, J. Kuhnhenn, U. Weinand, C. Caucheteur, D. Grobnic, et al., “Comparison of the radiation sensitivity of fiber Bragg gratings made by four different manufacturers,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 2011, 58(3): 906–909.
H. Henschel, S. K. Hoeffgen, J. Kuhnhenn, and U. Weinand, “Influence of manufacturing parameters and temperature on the radiation sensitivity of fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 2010, 57(4): 2029–2034.
H. Henschel, D. Grobnic, S. K. Hoeffgen, J. Kuhnhenn, S. J. Mihailov, and U. Weinand, “Development of highly radiation resistant fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 2011, 58(4): 2103–2110.
S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. R. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, et al., “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Optics Express, 2005, 13(12): 4708–4716.
B. D. Evans, “The role of hydrogen as a radiation protection agent at low temperature in a low-OH, pure silica optical fiber,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 1988, 35(6): 1215–1220.
D. Sporea, A. Sporea, and C. Oproiu, “Effects of hydrogen loading on optical attenuation of gamma-irradiated UV fibers,” Journal of Nuclear Materials, 2012, 423(1–3): 142–148.
A. Alessi, S. Girard, M. Cannas, S. Agnello, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Influence of drawing conditions on the properties and radiation sensitivities of pure-silica-core optical fibers,” Journal of Lightwave Technology, 2012, 30(11): 1726–1732.
A. L. Tomashuk and M. O. Zabezhailov, “Formation mechanisms of precursors of radiation-induced color centers during fabrication of silica optical fiber preform,” Journal of Applied Physics, 2011, 109(8): 083103–1–083103–11.
K. Nagasawa, Y. Hoshi, Y. Ohki, and K. Yahagi, “Improvement of radiation resistance of pure silica core fibers by hydrogen treatment,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 1985, 24(9): 1224–1228.
G. H. Sigel Jr., E. J. Friebele, and M. E. Gingerich, “Recent progress in the investigation of radiation resistant optical fibers,” in Proceedings of SPIE 0296, Fiber Optics in Adverse Environments I, 25th Annual Technical Symposium, San Diego, USA, Jan. 1–8, 1982.
K. Sanada, T. Shamoto, and K. Inada, “Radiation resistance characteristics of graded-index fibers with a core of Ge-, F-doped or B and F-codoped SiO2 glass,” Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 1995, 189(3): 283–290.
P. R. Watekar, S. Ju, and W. T. Han, “Design and development of a trenched optical fiber with ultra-low bending loss,” Optics Express, 2009, 17(12): 10350–10363.
B. Brichard, O. V. Butov, K. M. Golant, and A. F. Fernandez, “Gamma radiation-induced refractive index change in Ge- and N-doped silica,” Journal of Applied Physics, 2008, 103(5): 054905–1–054905–4.
K. Sanada, N. Shamoto, and K. Inada, “Radiation resistance of fluorine-doped silica-core fibers,” Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 1994, 179(4): 339–344.
E. J. Friebele, D. L. Griscom, and G. H. Sigel Jr., “Defect centers in a germanium-doped silica-core optical fiber,” Journal of Applied Physics, 1974, 45(8): 3424–3428.
S. Ju, Y. Kim, S. Jeong, J. Y. Kim, N. H. Lee, H. K. Jung, et al., “Gamma-ray dose-rate dependence on radiation resistance of specialty optical fiber with inner cladding layers,” Springer Proceedings in Physics, 2016, 177: 51–65.
N. P. Bansal and R. H. Doremus, “Handbook of glass properties,” Orlando, Florida, USA: Academic Press, 1986: 548–551.
J. W. Yu and K. Oh, “New in-line fiber band pass filters using high silica dispersive optical fibers,” Optics Communications, 2002, 204(1–6): 111–118.
H. Hultzsch, Eds., Optical telecommunication systems. Damm-Verlag KGGelsenkirchen, Germany: Academic Press, 1996.
S. Ju, P. R. Watekar, and W. T. Han, “Enhanced sensitivity of the FBG temperature sensor based on the PbO-GeO2-SiO2 glass optical fiber,” Journal of Lightwave Technology, 2010, 28(18): 2697–2700.
P. L. Chu and T. Whitbread, “Measurement of stresses in optical fiber and preform,” Applied Optics, 1982, 21(23): 4241–4245.
Y. Park, S. Choi, U. C. Paek, K. Oh, and D. Y. Kim, “Measurement method for profiling the residual stress of an optical fiber: detailed analysis of off-focusing and beam-deflection effects,” Applied Optics, 2003, 42(7): 1182–1190.
C. Yin, X. Hanning, G. Weiming, and G. Wenming, “Thermal behavior of GeO2 doped PbO-B2O3-ZnO-Bi2O3 glasses,” Materials Science and Engineering: A, 2006, 423(1–2): 184–188.
J. J. Shyu, C. Y. Lue, and R. D. Jean, “Addition of GeO2 to reduce the viscosity of parent glasses for low-expansion, transparent glass-ceramics containing high-quartz solid solutions,” Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 2006, 89(10): 3235–3239.
M. Kyoto, Y. Chigusa, M. OOE, M. Watanabe, T. Matubara, T. Yamamoto, et al., “Gamma-ray irradiation effect on loss increase of single mode optical fibers, (I) loss increase behavior and kinetic study,” Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 1989, 26(5): 507–515.
E. Regnier, I. Flammer, S. Girard, F. Gooijer, F. Achten, and G. Kuyt, “Low-dose radiation-induced attenuation at infrared wavelengths for P-doped, Ge-doped and pure silica-core optical fibres,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 2007, 54(4): 1115–1119.
B. Brichard, O. V. Butov, K. M. Golant, and A. F. Fernandez, “Gamma radiation-induced refractive index change in Ge- and N-doped silica,” Journal of Applied Physics, 2008, 103(5): 054905–1–4.
B. H. Kim, T. J. Ahn, D. Y. Kim, B. H. Lee, Y. Chung, U. C. Paek, et al., “Effect of CO2 laser irradiation on the refractive-index change in optical fibers,” Applied Optics, 2002, 41(19): 3809–3815.
B. H. Kim, Y. Park, T. J. Ahn, D. Y. Kim, B. H. Lee, Y. Chung, et al., “Residual stress relaxation in the core of optical fiber by CO2 laser irradiation,” Optics Letters, 2001, 26(21): 1657–1659.
C. S. Kim, Y. Han, B. H. Lee, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Induction of the refractive index change in B-doped optical fibers through relaxation of the mechanical stress,” Optics Communications, 2000, 185(4–6): 337–342.
B. H. Kim, Y. Park, D. Y. Kim, U. C. Paek, and W. T. Han, “Observation and analysis of residual stress development resulting from OH impurity in optical fibers,” Optics Letter, 2002, 27(10): 806–808.
F. H. El Batal, “Gamma ray interaction with bismuth silicate glasses,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions With Materials and Atoms, 2007, 254(2): 243–253.
Y. Kim, S. Ju, S. Jeong, S. H. Lee, and W. T. Han, “Gamma-ray radiation response at 1550 nm of fluorine-doped radiation hard single-mode optical fiber,” Optics Express, 2016, 24(4): 3910–3920.
G. Origlio, A. Boukenter, S. Girard, N. Richard, M. Cannas, R. Boscaino, et al., “Irradiation induced defects in fluorine doped silica,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions With Materials and Atoms, 2008, 266(12–13): 2918–2922.
K. Kajihara, M. Hirano, L. Skuja, and H. Hosono, “60Co γ-ray-induced intrinsic defect processes in fluorine-doped synthetic SiO2 glasses of different fluorine concentrations,” Materials Science and Engineering: B, 2009, 161(1–3): 96–99.
J. H. Jang, J. Koo, and B. S. Bae, “Photosensitivity of germanium oxide and germanosilicate glass sol-gel films,” Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 1999, 259(1–3): 144–148.
J. E. Shelby, “Effect of radiation on the physical properties of borosilicate glasses,” Journal of Applied Physics, 1980, 51(5): 2561–2565.
A. Morana, S. Girard, E. Marin, C. Marcandella, J. Périsse, J. R. Macé, et al., “Radiation hardening of FBG in harsh environments,” in Proceedings of SPIE 9157, 23rd International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Santander, Spain, Jun., 2014, pp: 91578I-1–91578I-4.
G. H. Sigel Jr., E. J. Friebele, and M. E. Gingerich, “Recent progress in the investigation of radiation resistant optical fibers,” in Proceedings of SPIE 0296, Conference on Fiber Optics in Adverse Environments I, 25th Annual Technical Symposium, San Diego, CA, USA, Jan. 1–8, 1982.
S. Girard, J. Keurinck, Y. Ouerdane, J. P. Meunier, and A. Boukenter, “Gamma-rays and pulsed X-ray radiation responses of germanosilicate single-mode optical fibers: Influence of cladding codopants,” Journal of Lightwave Technology, 2004, 22(8): 1915–1922.
J. E. Golob, P. B. Lyons, and L. D. Looney, “Transient radiation effects in low-loss optical waveguides,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 1977, NS-24(6): 2164–2168.
S. Ju, P. R. Watekar, Y. T. Ryu, Y. Lee, S. G. Kang, Y. Kim, et al., “Fabrication and gamma-ray irradiation effect on optical and mechanical properties of germano-silicate glass fibers with inner cladding of B and F doped silica glasses,” Fiber and Integrated Optics, 2019, 38(4): 191–207.
F. Liu, Y. An, P. Wang, B. Shao, and S. Chen, “Effects of radiation on optical fibers,” Recent Progress in Optical Fiber Research, M. Yasin, Eds., InTech, Shanghai, China: Academic Press, 2012: 431–450.
We thank the Advanced Technology Radiation Laboratory of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute for their assistance with γ-ray irradiation measurements. This work was partially supported by the Korea Electric Power Corporation Research Institute (Grant No. KEPRI-16-23) and the Korea Industrial Complex Corporation Industrial Cluster Competitiveness Enhancement Project (Grant No. RGJ18014), South Korea.
About this article
Cite this article
Ju, S., Kim, Y., Linganna, K. et al. Effect of Temperature and Gamma-Ray Irradiation on Optical Characteristics of Fiber Bragg Grating Inscribed Radiation-Resistant Optical Fiber. Photonic Sens 10, 16–33 (2020) doi:10.1007/s13320-019-0567-4
- Optical fiber
- radiation resistance
- temperature sensor
- fiber Bragg grating
- radiation-induced attenuation