Photonic Sensors

, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp 80–87 | Cite as

Detection of gain enhancement in laser-induced fluorescence of rhodamine B lasing dye by silicon dioxide nanostructures-coated cavity

Open Access
Regular
  • 55 Downloads

Abstract

In this work, nanostructured silicon dioxide films are deposited by closed-field unbalanced direct-current (DC) reactive magnetron sputtering technique on two sides of quartz cells containing rhodamine B dye dissolved in ethanol with 10‒5 M concentration as a random gain medium. The preparation conditions are optimized to prepare highly pure SiO2 nanostructures with a minimum particle size of about 20 nm. The effect of SiO2 films as external cavity for the random gain medium is determined by the laser-induced fluorescence of this medium, and an increase of about 200% in intensity is observed after the deposition of nanostructured SiO2 thin films on two sides of the dye cell.

Keywords

Silicon dioxide nanostructures gain enhancement rhodamine B dye 

References

  1. [1]
    Y. Y. Chen and G. Jin, “Refractive index and thickness analysis of natural silicon dioxide film growing on silicon with variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Spectroscopy, 2006, 21(10): 26–31.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    A. Ranjgar, R. Norouzi, A. Zolanvari, and H. Sadeghi, “Characterization and optical absorption properties of plasmonic nanostructured thin films,” Armenian Journal of Physics, 2013, 6(4): 198–203.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    O. A. Hamadi, “Characteristics of CdO-Si heterostructure produced by plasma-induced bonding technique,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part L: Journal of Materials Design & Applications, 2008, 222(L1): 65–71.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    A. Tabata, N. Matsuno, Y. Suzuoki, and T. Mizutani, “Optical properties and structure of SiO2 films prepared by ion-beam sputtering,” Thin Solid Films, 1996, 289(1–2): 84–89.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    A. A. Anber and F. J. Kadhim, “Preparation of nanostructured SixN1-x thin films by DC reactive magnetron sputtering for tribology applications,” Silicon, 2017, 2017(2): 1–4.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    A. A. Issa, “The effect of annealing on nano-topography of SiO2 film,” Rafidain Journal of Science, 2014, 25(2): 74–86.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    A. J. Haider, “The effect of some experimental parameters on the properties of porous silicon,” Iraqi Journal of Applied Physics, 2008, 4(1): 37–40.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    S. E. Alexandrov, N. McSporran, and M. L. Hitchman, “Remote AP-PECVD of silicon dioxide films from hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO),” Chemical Vapor Deposition, 2005, 11(11–12): 481–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    S. B. Bang, T. H. Chung, Y. Kim, M. S. Kang, and J. K. Kim, “Effects of the oxygen fraction and substrate bias power on the electrical and optical properties of silicon oxide films by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition using TMOS/O2 gas,” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 2004, 37(12): 1679–1684.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    J. K. Choi, D. H. Kim, J. Lee, and J. B. Yoo, “Effects of process parameters on the growth of thick SiO2 using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition with hexamethyldisilazane,” Surface & Coatings Technology, 2000, 131(1): 136–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    D. Hiller, R. Zierold, J. Bachmann, M. Alexe, Y. Yang, J. W. Gerlach, et al., “Low temperature silicon dioxide by thermal atomic layer deposition: investigation of material properties,” Journal of Applied Physics, 2010, 107(6): 064314-1–064314-10.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    Y. Inoue and O. Takai, “Spectroscopic studies on preparation of silicon oxide films by PECVD using organosilicon compounds,” Plasma Sources Science & Technology, 1996, 5(2): 339–343.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    S. Kamiyama, T. Miura, and Y. Nara, “Comparison between SiO2 films deposited by atomic layer deposition with SiH2[N(CH3)2]2 and SiH[N(CH3)2]3 precursors,” Thin Solid Films, 515(4): 1517–1521.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    J. W. Klaus and S. M. George, “Atomic layer deposition of SiO2 at room temperature using NH3-catalyzed sequential surface reactions,” Surface Science, 2000, 447(1–3): 81–90.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    J. W. Klaus, A. W. Ott, J. M. Johnson, and S. M. George, “Atomic layer controlled growth of SiO2 films using binary reaction sequence chemistry,” Applied Physics Letters, 1997, 70(9): 1092–1094.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    J. W. Klaus, O. Sneh, A. W. Ott, and S. M. George, “Atomic layer deposition of SiO2 using catalyzed and uncatalyzed selflimiting surface reactions,” Surface Review & Letters, 1999, 06(03n04): 435–448.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    J. H. Lee, C. H. Jeong, J. T. Lim, N. G. Jo, S. J. Kyung, and G. Y. Yeom, “Characteristic of SiO2 films deposited by using low temperature PECVD with TEOS/N2/O2,” Journal of the Korean Physical Society, 2005, 46: 890–894.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    J. H. Lee, U. J. Kim, C. H. Han, S. K. Rha, W. J. Lee, and C. O. Park, “Investigation of silicon oxide thin films prepared by atomic layer deposition using SiH2Cl2 and O3 as the precursors,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 2004, 43(3A): L328–L330.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    S. W. Lee, K. Park, B. Han, S. H. Son, S. K. Rha, C. O. Park, et al., “Atomic layer deposition of silicon oxide thin films by alternating exposures to Si2Cl6 and O3,” Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters, 2008, 11(7): G23–G26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    M. P. Yu, H. Qiu, X. B. Chen, P. Wu, and Y. Tian, “Comparative study of the characteristics of Ni films deposited on SiO2/Si(100) by oblique-angle sputtering and conventional sputtering,” Thin Solid Films, 2008, 516(21): 7903–7909.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    M. A. Hameed and Z. M. Jabbar, “Preparation and characterization of silicon dioxide nanostructures by DC reactive closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering,” Iraqi Journal of Applied Physics, 2016, 12(4): 13–18.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    M. K. Dhahir and H. A. Khyoon, “Study the effect of PH variation on the particle size of SiO2 thin films,” Iraqi Journal of Applied Physics, 2016, 15: 1–8.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    A. M. Mahajan, L. S. Patil, J. P. Bange, and D. K. Gautam, “Growth of SiO2 films by TEOS-PECVD system for microelectronics applications,” Surface & Coatings Technology, 2004, 183(2): 295–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    O. A. Hamadi, “Effect of annealing on the electrical characteristics of CdO-Si heterostructure produced by plasma-induced bonding technique,” Iraqi Journal of Applied Physics, 2008, 4(3): 34–37.Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    O. A. Hammadi and N. E. Naji, “Electrical and spectral characterization of CdS/Si heterojunction prepared by plasma-induced bonding,” Optical & Quantum Electronics, 2016, 48(8): 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    O. A. Hammadi, “Characteristics of heat-annealed silicon homojunction infrared photodetector fabricated by plasma-assisted technique,” Photonic Sensors, 2016, 6(4): 345–350.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    O. A. Hammadi, “Characterization of SiC/Si heterojunction fabricated by plasma-induced growth of nanostructured silicon carbide layer on silicon surface,” Iraqi Journal of Applied Physics, 2016, 12(2): 9–13.Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    O. A. Hammadi, “Photovoltaic properties of thermally-grown selenium-doped silicon photodiodes for infrared detection applications,” Photonic Sensors, 2015, 5(2): 152–158.MathSciNetCrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    O. A. Hammadi, M. K. Khalaf, and F. J. Kadhim, “Fabrication and characterization of UV photodetectors based on silicon nitride nanostructures prepared by magnetron sputtering,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part N: Journal of Nanoengineering & Nanosystems, 2015, 230(1): 32–36.Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    O. A. Hammadi, M. K. Khalaf, and F. J. Kadhim, “Fabrication of UV photodetector from nickel oxide nanoparticles deposited on silicon substrate by closed-field unbalanced dual magnetron sputtering techniques,” Optical & Quantum Electronics, 2015, 47(12): 3805–3813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. [31]
    P. Pan, “The composition and properties of PECVD silicon oxide films,” Applied Physics Letters, 1985, 132(8): 2012–2019.Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    S. M. Zayed, A. M. Alshimy, and A. E. Fahmy, “Effect of surface treated silicon dioxide nanoparticles on some mechanical properties of maxillofacial silicone elastomer,” International Journal of Biomaterials, 2014, 2014: 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. [33]
    O. A. Hammadi, M. K. Khalaf, and F. J. Kadhim, “Silicon nitride nanostructures prepared by reactive sputtering using closed-field unbalanced dual magnetrons,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part L: Journal of Materials Design & Applications, 2017, 231(5): 479–487.Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    O. A. Hammadi, M. K. Khalaf, F. J. Kadhim, and B. T. Chiad, “Operation characteristics of a closed-field unbalanced dual-magnetrons plasma sputtering system,” Bulgarian Journal of Physics, 2014, 41(1): 24–33.Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    S. T. Sulaiman, Y. N. Al-Jammal, and A. A. Issa, “The growth and investigation of interface of SiO2/Si by anodic oxidation technique using acetic acid medium,” Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, 23(4): 117–126.Google Scholar
  36. [36]
    I. Suzuki, C. Dussarrat, and K. Yanagita, “Extra low-temperature SiO2 deposition using aminosilanes,” Ecs Transactions, 2007, 3(15): 119–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. [37]
    T. Tamura, S. Ishibashi, S. Tanaka, M. Kohyama, and M. H. Lee, “First-principles analysis of optical absorption edge in pure and fluorine-doped SiO2 glass,” Computational Materials Science, 2008, 44(1): 61–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. [38]
    W. F. Wu and B. S. Chiou, “Optical and mechanical properties of reactively sputtered silicon dioxide films,” Semiconductor Science & Technology, 1996, 11(9): 1317–1321.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  39. [39]
    Y. Chen and G. Jin, “Refractive index and thickness analysis of natural silicon dioxide film growing on silicon with variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Spectroscopy, 2006, 21(10): 26–31.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhysicsAl-Iraqia UniversityBaghdadIraq

Personalised recommendations