Photonic Sensors

, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp 43–47 | Cite as

Characterization of polycrystalline nickel cobaltite nanostructures prepared by DC plasma magnetron co-sputtering for gas sensing applications

Open Access
Regular
  • 29 Downloads

Abstract

In this work, a gas sensor is fabricated from polycrystalline nickel cobaltite nano films deposited on transparent substrates by closed-field unbalanced dual-magnetrons (CFUBDM) co-sputtering technique. Two targets of nickel and cobalt are mounted on the cathode of discharge system and co-sputtered by direct current (DC) argon discharge plasma in presence of oxygen as a reactive gas. The total gas pressure is 0.5 mbar and the mixing ratio of Ar:O2 gases is 5:1. The characterization measurements performed on the prepared films show that their transmittance increases with the incident wavelength, the polycrystalline structure includes 5 crystallographic planes, the average particle size is about 35 nm, the electrical conductivity is linearly increasing with increasing temperature, and the activation energy is about 0.41 eV. These films show high sensitivity to ethanol vapor.

Keywords

Nickel cobaltite magnetron sputtering reactive sputtering gas sensing 

Notes

Acknowledgment

Authors would like to thank people at Plasma-Processing Lab at University of Central Oklahoma (USA) for the experimental assistance during the work.

References

  1. [1]
    J. G. Kim, D. L. Pugmire, D. Battaglia, and M. A. Langell, “Analysis of the NiCo2O4 spinel surface with Auger and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Applied Surface Science, 2000, 165(1): 70–84.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    F. Iacomi, G. Calin, C. Scarlat, M. Irimia, C. Doroftei, M. Dobromir, et al., “Functional properties of nickel cobalt oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films, 2011, 520(1): 651–655.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    S. K. Chang, Z. Zainal, K. B. Tan, and N. A. Yusof, “Surface morphology and crystallinity of metal oxides in nickel-cobalt binary system,” Sains Malaysiana, 2012, 41(4): 465–470.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    O. A. Hamadi, “Characteristics of CdO-Si heterostructure produced by plasma-induced bonding technique,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part L: Journal of Materials Design & Applications, 2008, 222(1): 65–71.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    O. A. Hamadi, “Effect of annealing on the electrical characteristics of CdO-Si heterostructure produced by plasma-induced bonding technique,” Iraqi Journal of Applied Physics, 2008, 4(3): 34–37.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    R. Ding, L. Qai, and H. Y. Wang, “Scalable electrodeposition of cost-effective microsized NiCo2O4 electrode materials for practical applications in electrochemical capacitors,” ECS Electrochem Letters, 2012, 1(3): A43–A46.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    M. Hussain, Z. H. Ibupoto, M. A. Abbasi, X. J. Liu, O. Nur, and M. Willander, “Synthesis of three dimensional nickel cobalt oxide nanoneedles on nickel foam, their characterization and glucose sensing application,” Sensors, 2014, 14(3): 5415–5425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    M. Y. Ho, P. S. Khiew, D. Isa, T. K. Tan, W. S. Chiu, and C. H. Chia, “A review of metal oxide composite electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors,” Nano, 2014, 9(6): 1430002-1–1430002-25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    O. A. Hammadi, “Photovoltaic properties of thermally-grown selenium-doped silicon photodiodes for infrared detection applications,” Photonic Sensors, 2015, 5(2): 152–158.MathSciNetCrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    O. A. Hammadi and N. E. Naji, “Electrical and spectral characterization of CdS/Si heterojunction prepared by plasma-induced bonding,” Optical and Quantum Electronics, 2016, 48(8): 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    S. U. Offiah, A. C. Nwanya, S. C. Ezugwu, B. T. Sone, R. U. Osuji, M. Maaza, et al., “Chemical bath synthesis and physico-chemical characterizations of NiO-CoO composite thin films for supercapacitor applications,” International Journal of Electrochemical Science, 2014, 9(10): 5837–5848.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    W. W. Liu, C. Lu, K. Liang, and B. Tay, “A three dimensional vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotube/NiCo2O4 core/shell structure for novel high-performance supercapacitors,” Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 2014, 2(14): 5100–5107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    N. A. Bakr, S. A. Salman, and A. M. Shano, “Effect of Co doping on structural and optical properties of NiO thin films prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis method,” International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy, 2015, 2: 15–30.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    O. A. Hammadi, “Characterization of SiC/Si heterojunction fabricated by plasma-induced growth of nanostructured silicon carbide layer on silicon surface,” Iraqi Journal of Applied Physics, 2016, 12(2): 9–13.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    N. S. Umeokwonna, A. J. Ekpunobi, and P. I. Ekwo, “Effect of cobalt doping on the optical properties of nickel cobalt oxide nanofilms deposited by electrodeposition method,” International Journal of Technical Research and Applications, 2015, 3(4): 347–351.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    S. Sahoo, S. Ratha, and C. S. Rout, “Spinel NiCo2O4 nanorods for supercapacitor applications,” American Journal of Engineering & Applied Sciences, 2015, 8(3): 371–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    O. A. Hammadi, “Characteristics of heat-annealed silicon homojunction infrared photodetector fabricated by plasma-assisted technique,” Photonic Sensors, 2016, 6(4): 345–350.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    O. A. Hammadi, M. K. Khalaf, F. J. Kadhim, and B. T. Chiad, “Operation characteristics of a closed-field unbalanced dual-magnetrons plasma sputtering system,” Bulgarian Journal of Physics, 2014, 41(1): 24–33.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    O. A. Hammadi, M. K. Khalaf, and F. J. Kadhim, “Silicon nitride nanostructures prepared by reactive sputtering using closed-field unbalanced dual magnetrons,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part L: Journal of Materials Design & Applications, 2017, 231(5): 479–487.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    O. A. Hammadi, M. K. Khalaf, and F. J. Kadhim, “Fabrication of UV photodetector from nickel oxide nanoparticles deposited on silicon substrate by closed-field unbalanced dual magnetron sputtering techniques,” Optical & Quantum Electronics, 2015, 47(2): 1–9.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    O. A. Hammadi, M. K. Khalaf, and F. J. Kadhim, “Fabrication and characterization of UV photodetectors based on silicon nitride nanostructures prepared by magnetron sputtering,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part N: Journal of Nanoengineering & Nanosystems, 2015, 230(1): 32–36.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    A. A. Anber and F. J. Kadhim, “Preparation of nanostructured SixN1-x thin films by DC reactive magnetron sputtering for tribology applications,” Silicon, 2017, pp. 1–4.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    M. A. Hameed and Z. M. Jabbar, “Preparation and characterization of silicon dioxide nanostructures by DC reactive closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering,” Iraqi Journal of Applied Physics, 2016, 12(4): 13–18.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physics, College of EducationAl-Iraqia UniversityBaghdadIraq
  2. 2.School of Applied SciencesUniversity of TechnologyBaghdadIraq

Personalised recommendations