We describe a fiber optic hydrophone array system that could be used for underwater acoustic surveillance applications (e.g. military, counter terrorist, and customs authorities in protecting ports and harbors), offshore production facilities or coastal approaches as well as various marine applications. In this paper, we propose a new approach to underwater sonar systems using the voltage-controlled liquid crystals and simple multiplexing method. The proposed method permits measurement of sound under water at multiple points along an optical fiber using the low cost components and standard single mode fiber, without complex interferometric measurement techniques, electronics or demodulation software.
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Brodzeli, Z., Silvestri, L., Michie, A. et al. Liquid Crystal-Based Hydrophone Arrays. Photonic Sens 2, 237–246 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13320-012-0072-5