3D Research

, 9:4 | Cite as

Physically-Based Rendering of Particle-Based Fluids with Light Transport Effects

  • Ali Beddiaf
  • Mohamed Chaouki Babahenini
3DR Express


Recent interactive rendering approaches aim to efficiently produce images. However, time constraints deeply affect their output accuracy and realism (many light phenomena are poorly or not supported at all). To remedy this issue, in this paper, we propose a physically-based fluid rendering approach. First, while state-of-the-art methods focus on isosurface rendering with only two refractions, our proposal (1) considers the fluid as a heterogeneous participating medium with refractive boundaries, and (2) supports both multiple refractions and scattering. Second, the proposed solution is fully particle-based in the sense that no particles transformation into a grid is required. This interesting feature makes it able to handle many particle types (water, bubble, foam, and sand). On top of that, a medium with different fluids (color, phase function, etc.) can also be rendered.


SPH simulation Fluid visualization Global illumination Path tracing 



Special thanks go to our colleague Mohammed A. Merzoug, Assistant Professor at the University of Batna 2, for his help. We are grateful for the time and pertinent comments given by the reviewers. This work was partly supported by the PROFAS grant.


  1. 1.
    Adamson, A., & Alexa, M. (2003). Ray tracing point set surfaces. In Shape modeling international (pp. 272–279). IEEE.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alexa, M., Behr, J., Cohen-Or, D., Fleishman, S., Levin, D., & Silva, C. T. (2003). Computing and rendering point set surfaces. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 9(1), 3–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Blinn, J. F. (1982). A generalization of algebraic surface drawing. ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG), 1(3), 235–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brousset, M., Darles, E., Meneveaux, D., Poulin, P., & Crespin, B. (2016). Simulation and control of breaking waves using an external force model. Computers & Graphics, 57, 102–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Co, C. S., Hamann, B., & Joy, K. I. (2003). Iso-splatting: A point-based alternative to isosurface visualization. In Proceedings of 11th Pacific conference on computer graphics and applications, 2003 (pp. 325–334). IEEE.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Desbrun, M., & Gascuel, M. -P. (1996). Smoothed particles: A new paradigm for animating highly deformable bodies. In Computer animation and simulation’ 96 (pp. 61–76). Springer.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Drebin, R. A., Carpenter, L., & Hanrahan, P. (1988). Volume rendering. In ACM siggraph computer graphics (Vol. 22, pp. 65–74). ACM.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Enright, D., Fedkiw, R., Ferziger, J., & Mitchell, I. (2002). A hybrid particle level set method for improved interface capturing. Journal of Computational Physics, 183(1), 83–116.MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fedkiw, R., Stam, J., & Jensen, H. W. (2001). Visual simulation of smoke. In Proceedings of the 28th annual conference on computer graphics and interactive techniques (pp. 15–22). ACM.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gatzke, T. D., & Grimm, C. M. (2006). Estimating curvature on triangular meshes. International Journal of Shape Modeling, 12(01), 1–28.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gingold, R. A., & Monaghan, J. J. (1977). Smoothed particle hydrodynamics: Theory and application to non-spherical stars. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 181(3), 375–389.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Goswami, P., Schlegel, P., Solenthaler, B., & Pajarola, R. (2010). Interactive SPH simulation and rendering on the GPU. In Proceedings of the 2010 ACM siggraph/eurographics symposium on computer animation (pp. 55–64). Eurographics Association.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hadwiger, M., Sigg, C., Scharsach, H., Bühler, K., & Gross, M. (2005). Real-time ray-casting and advanced shading of discrete isosurfaces. In Computer graphics forum (Vol. 24, pp. 303–312). Wiley Online Library.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Holzschuch, N. (2015). Accurate computation of single scattering in participating media with refractive boundaries. In Computer graphics forum (Vol. 34, pp. 48–59). Wiley Online Library.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Imai, T., Kanamori, Y., & Mitani, J. (2016). Real-time screen-space liquid rendering with complex refractions. Computer Animation and Virtual Worlds, 27(3–4), 425–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jakob, W. (2010). Mitsuba renderer.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jarosz, W., Nowrouzezahrai, D., Sadeghi, I., & Jensen, H. W. (2011). A comprehensive theory of volumetric radiance estimation using photon points and beams. ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG), 30(1), 5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jensen, H. W. (2001). Realistic image synthesis using photon mapping. Natick: AK Peters Ltd.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jensen, H. W., & Christensen, P. H. (1998). Efficient simulation of light transport in scenes with participating media using photon maps. In Proceedings of the 25th annual conference on computer graphics and interactive techniques (pp. 311–320). ACM.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kanamori, Y., Szego, Z., & Nishita, T. (2008). GPU-based fast ray casting for a large number of metaballs. In Computer graphics forum (Vol. 27, pp. 351–360). Wiley Online Library.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kulla, C., & Fajardo, M. (2012). Importance sampling techniques for path tracing in participating media. In Computer graphics forum (Vol. 31, pp. 1519–1528). Wiley Online Library.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lafortune, E. P., & Willems, Y. D. (1996). Rendering participating media with bidirectional path tracing. In Rendering techniques’ 96 (pp. 91–100). Springer.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lorensen, W. E., & Cline, H. E. (1987). Marching cubes: A high resolution 3D surface construction algorithm. In ACM siggraph computer graphics (Vol. 21, pp. 163–169). ACM.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Losasso, F., Gibou, F., & Fedkiw, R. (2004). Simulating water and smoke with an octree data structure. In ACM transactions on graphics (TOG) (Vol. 23, pp. 457–462). ACM.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Monaghan, J. J. (1992). Smoothed particle hydrodynamics. Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 30(1), 543–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Müller, M., Charypar, D., & Gross, M. (2003). Particle-based fluid simulation for interactive applications. In Proceedings of the 2003 ACM siggraph/eurographics symposium on computer animation (pp. 154–159). Eurographics Association.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rama, C. H. (2012). Fluids v. 3-a large-scale, open source fluid simulator, December 2012, 1(2).
  28. 28.
    Stam, J., & Fiume, E. (1995). Depicting fire and other gaseous phenomena using diffusion processes. In Proceedings of the 22nd annual conference on computer graphics and interactive techniques (pp. 129–136). ACM.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Takahashi, T., Fujii, H., Kunimatsu, A., Hiwada, K., Saito, T., Tanaka, K., & Ueki, H. (2003). Realistic animation of fluid with splash and foam. In Computer graphics forum (Vol. 22, pp. 391–400). Wiley Online Library.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Thürey, N., Sadlo, F., Schirm, S., Müller-Fischer, M., & Gross, M. (2007). Real-time simulations of bubbles and foam within a shallow water framework. In Proceedings of the 2007 ACM siggraph/eurographics symposium on computer animation (pp. 191–198). Eurographics Association.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    van der Laan, W. J., Green, S., & Sainz, M. (2009). Screen space fluid rendering with curvature flow. In Proceedings of the 2009 symposium on interactive 3D graphics and games (pp. 91–98). ACM.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wald, I., & Havran, V. (2006). On building fast kd-trees for ray tracing, and on doing that in o (N log N). In IEEE symposium on interactive ray tracing 2006 (pp. 61–69). IEEE.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wang, B., Gascuel, J. -D., & Nolzschuch, N. Point-based light transport for participating media with refractive boundaries. In Proceedings of the eurographics symposium on rendering: Experimental ideas & implementations, EGSR ’16, Goslar Germany, Germany (pp. 109–119). Eurographics Association. ISBN 978-3-03868-019-2. 10.2312/sre.20161216.
  34. 34.
    Wyman, C. (2005). An approximate image-space approach for interactive refraction. In ACM transactions on graphics (TOG) (Vol. 24, pp. 1050–1053). ACM.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Xiao, X., Zhang, S., & Yang, X. (2017). Real-time high-quality surface rendering for large scale particle-based fluids. In Proceedings of the 21st ACM siggraph symposium on interactive 3D graphics and games (pp. 12). ACM.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Yu, J., & Turk, G. (2013). Reconstructing surfaces of particle-based fluids using anisotropic kernels. ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG), 32(1), 5.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Zhu, Y., & Bridson, R. (2005) Animating sand as a fluid. In: ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG), volume 24, pages 965–972. ACM.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zwicker, M., Pfister, H., Van Baar, J., & Gross, M. (2001). Surface splatting. In: Proceedings of the 28th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques, pages 371–378. ACM.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© 3D Research Center, Kwangwoon University and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer Science, LESIA LaboratoryUniversity Mohamed Khider of BiskraBiskraAlgeria

Personalised recommendations