3D Research

, 7:11 | Cite as

Robust and Blind 3D Mesh Watermarking in Spatial Domain Based on Faces Categorization and Sorting

  • Amir Masoud Molaei
  • Hossein Ebrahimnezhad
  • Mohammad Hossein Sedaaghi
3DR Express


In this paper, a 3D watermarking algorithm in spatial domain is presented with blind detection. In the proposed method, a negligible visual distortion is observed in host model. Initially, a preprocessing is applied on the 3D model to make it robust against geometric transformation attacks. Then, a number of triangle faces are determined as mark triangles using a novel systematic approach in which faces are categorized and sorted robustly. In order to enhance the capability of information retrieval by attacks, block watermarks are encoded using Reed-Solomon block error-correcting code before embedding into the mark triangles. Next, the encoded watermarks are embedded in spherical coordinates. The proposed method is robust against additive noise, mesh smoothing and quantization attacks. Also, it is stout next to geometric transformation, vertices and faces reordering attacks. Moreover, the proposed algorithm is designed so that it is robust against the cropping attack. Simulation results confirm that the watermarked models confront very low distortion if the control parameters are selected properly. Comparison with other methods demonstrates that the proposed method has good performance against the mesh smoothing attacks.


3D watermarking Blind detection Block codes Faces categorization and sorting Robust Reed-Solomon error-correcting codes Spatial domain 


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Copyright information

© 3D Research Center, Kwangwoon University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amir Masoud Molaei
    • 2
  • Hossein Ebrahimnezhad
    • 1
  • Mohammad Hossein Sedaaghi
    • 2
  1. 1.Computer Vision Res. Lab., Electrical Eng. FacultySahand University of TechnologyTabrizIran
  2. 2.Electrical Eng. FacultySahand University of TechnologyTabrizIran

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