Australasian Plant Pathology

, Volume 47, Issue 3, pp 269–276 | Cite as

Colletotrichum species associated with pre-and post-harvest diseases of avocado and mango in eastern Australia

  • F. R. Giblin
  • Y. P. Tan
  • R. Mitchell
  • L. M. Coates
  • J. A. G. Irwin
  • R. G. Shivas
Original Paper


Colletotrichum alienum, C. asianum, C. fructicola, C. karstii and C. siamense were identified from 87 isolates previously assigned to C. gloeosporioides sensu lato from fruit of avocado (Persea americana cv. Hass) and mango (Mangifera indica cv. Kensington Pride) with post-harvest anthracnose and pre-harvest pepper spot diseases. Colletotrichum alienum, C. fructicola and C. karstii were only found amongst isolates from avocado. Colletotrichum asianum was only seen in isolates from mango, most frequently associated with both post-harvest anthracnose and pre-harvest pepper spot. Colletotrichum siamense was found amongst isolates from both hosts, although it was more commonly encountered in association with disease symptoms in avocado than in mango. This study did not identify any pathogenic or molecular features between isolates causing post-harvest anthracnose and those causing pre-harvest pepper spot symptoms.


Tear stain Gene sequence Pathogenicity 



Much of this work was originally funded by Horticulture Australia Ltd. (now Hort Innovation), the Department of Primary Industries Queensland (now Department of Agriculture and Fisheries Queensland), Avocados Australia, and the Cooperative Research Centre for Tropical Plant Protection/University of Queensland. Additional funding was recently provided by the Australian Biological Resources Study. The authors would like to acknowledge the support and funding by these organisations.


  1. Abang MM, Winter S, Green KR, Hoffmann P, Mignouna HD, Wolf GA (2002) Molecular identification of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causing yam anthracnose in Nigeria. Plant Pathol 51:63–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alahakoon PW, Brown AE, Sreenivasaprasad S (1994) Cross-infection potential of genetic groups of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on tropical fruit. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 44:93–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cai L, Hyde KD, Taylor PWJ, Weir BS, Waller JM, Abang MM, Zhang JZ, Yang YL, Phoulivong S, Liu ZY, Prihastuti H, Shivas RG, McKenzie EHC, Johnston PR (2009) A polyphasic approach for studying Colletotrichum. Fungal Divers 39:183–204Google Scholar
  4. Damm U, Cannon PF, Woudenberg JHC, Johnston PR, Weir BS, Tan YP, Shivas RG, Crous PW (2012) The Colletotrichum boninense species complex. Stud Mycol 15:1–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. De Hoog GS, Gerrits van den Ende AHG (1998) Molecular diagnostics of clinical strains of filamentous basidiomycetes. Mycoses 41:183–189CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. De Silva DD, Ades PK, Crous PW, Taylor PWJ (2017) Colletotrichum species associated with chili anthracnose in Australia. Plant Pathol 66:254–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dodd JC, Prusky D, Jeffries P (1997) Fruit diseases. In: Litz RE (ed) The Mango: Botany, Production and Uses. CAB International, Wallingford, pp 257–280Google Scholar
  8. Freeman S, Katan T, Shabi E (1998) Characterisation of Colletotrichum species responsible for anthracnose diseases of various fruit. Plant Dis 82:596–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Giblin FR (2006) Avocado fruit responses to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. PhD Thesis, CRC for Tropical Plant Protection, University of Queensland, BrisbaneGoogle Scholar
  10. Giblin FR, Coates LM, Irwin JAG (2010) Pathogenic diversity of avocado and mango isolates of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causing anthracnose and pepper spot in Australia. Australas Plant Pathol 39:50–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Glass NL, Donaldson G (1995) Development of primer sets designed for use with PCR to amplify conserved genes from filamentous ascomycetes. Appl Environ Microbiol 61:1323–1330PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Hayden HL, Pegg KP, Aitken EAB, Irwin JAG (1994) Genetic relationships as assessed by molecular markers and cross-infection among strains of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Aust J Bot 42:9–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hodson A, Mills PR, Brown AE (1993) Ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolated from tropical fruit. Mycol Res 97:329–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Huang F, Chen GQ, Hou X, Fu YS, Cai L, Hyde KD, Li HY (2013) Colletotrichum species associated with cultivated citrus in China. Fungal Divers 61:61–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hyde KD, Cai L, Cannon PF, Crouch JA, Crous PW, Damm U, Goodwin PH, Chen H, Johnston PR, Jones EBG, Liu ZY, McKenzie EHC, Moriwaki J, Noireung P, Pennycook SR, Pfenning LH, Prihastuti H, Sato T, Shivas RG, Tan YP, Taylor PWJ, Weir BS, Yang YL, Zhang JZ (2009a) Colletotrichum – names in current use. Fungal Divers 39:147–182Google Scholar
  16. Hyde KD, Cai L, McKenzie EHC, Yang YL, Zhang J, Prihastuti H (2009b) Colletotrichum: a catalogue of confusion. Fungal Divers 39:1–17Google Scholar
  17. James RS, Ray J, Tan YP, Shivas RG (2014) Colletotrichum siamense, C. theobromicola and C. queenslandicum from several plant species and the identification of C. asianum in the Northern Territory, Australia. Australasian Plant Disease Notes 9: 138Google Scholar
  18. Jayawardena RS, Hyde KD, Damm U, Cai L, Liu M, Li XH, Zhang W, Zhao WS, Yan JY (2016) Notes on currently accepted species of Colletotrichum. Mycosphere 7(8):1192–1260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Johnston PR, Jones D (1997) Relationships among Colletotrichum isolates from fruit-rots assessed using rDNA sequences. Mycologia 89:420–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Johnston PR, Pennycook SR, Manning MA (2005) Taxonomy of fruit-rotting fungal pathogens: what's really out there? New Zealand Plant Protection 58:42–46Google Scholar
  21. Lima NB, de Batista MV, A, De Morais MA Jr, Barbosa MAG, Michereff SJ, Hyde KD, Câmara MPS (2013a) Five Colletotrichum species are responsible for mango anthracnose in northeastern Brazil. Fungal Divers 61:75–88Google Scholar
  22. Lima NB, Marques MW, Michereff SJ, Morais MA Jr, Barbosa MAG, Câmara MPS (2013b) First report of mango anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum karstii in Brazil. Plant Dis 97(9):1248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Liu F, Damm U, Cai L, Crous P (2013) Species of the Colletotrichum gloeosporioides complex associated with anthracnose diseases of Proteaceae. Fungal Divers 61:89–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Liu LP, Shu J, Zhang L, Hu R, Chen CQ, Yang LN, Lu BH, Liu YN, Yu L, Wang X, Li Y, Gao J (2017) First report of post-harvest anthracnose on mango (Mangifera indica) caused by Colletotrichum siamense in China. Plant Dis 101(5):833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. O’Donnell K, Cigelnik E (1997) Two divergent intragenomic rDNA ITS2 types within a monophyletic lineage of the fungus Fusarium are nonorthologous. Mol Phylogenet Evol 7:103–116CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Phoulivong S, Cai L, Chen H, McKenzie EHC, Abdelsalam K, Chukeatirote E, Hyde KD (2010) Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is not a common pathogen on tropical fruit. Fungal Divers 44:33–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Prihastuti S, Cai L, Chen H, McKenzie EHC, Hyde KD (2009) Characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with coffee berries in northern Thailand. Fungal Divers 39:89–109Google Scholar
  28. Qin LP, Huang SL, Lin SH, Lin CH (2017) First report of anthracnose of Mangifera indica caused by Colletotrichum siamense in Sanya City in China. Plant Dis 101:1038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rojas EI, Rehner SA, Samuels GJ, Van Bael SA, Herre EA, Cannon P, Chen R, Pang J, Wang R, Zhang Y, Peng YQ, Sha T (2010) Colletotrichum gloeosporioides s.l. associated with Theobroma cacao and other plants in Panama: multilocus phylogenies distinguish host-associated pathogens from asymptomatic endophytes. Mycologia 102(6):1318–1338CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Sharma G, Kumar N, Weir BS, Hyde KD, Shenoy BD (2013) The ApMat marker can resolve Colletotrichum species: a case study with Mangifera indica. Fungal Divers 61:117–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sharma G, Gryzenhout M, Hyde KD, Pinnaka AK, Shenoy BD (2015a) First report of Colletotrichum asianum causing mango anthracnose in South Africa. Plant Dis 99:725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sharma G, Pinnaka AK, Shenoy BD (2015b) Resolving the Colletotrichum siamense species complex using ApMat marker. Fungal Divers 71:247–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sharma G, Maymon M, Freeman S (2017) Epidemiology, pathology and identification of Colletotrichum including a novel species associated with avocado (Persea americana) anthracnose in Israel. Sci Rep 7:15839CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Shivas RG, Tan YP (2009) A taxonomic re-assessment of Colletotrichum acutatum, introducing C. fioriniae comb. et stat. nov. and C. simmondsii sp. nov. Fungal Divers 39:111–122Google Scholar
  35. Shivas RG, Tan YP, Edwards J, Dinh Q, Maxwell A, Andjic V, Liberato JR, Anderson C, Beasley DR, Bransgrove K, Coates LM, Cowan K, Daniel R, Dean JR, Lomavatu MF, Mercado-Escueta D, Mitchell RW, Thangavel R, Tran-Nguyen LTT, Weir BS (2016) Colletotrichum species in Australia. Australas Plant Pathol 45(5):447–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Silva-Rojas HV, Ávila-Quezada GD (2011) Phylogenetic and morphological identification of Colletotrichum boninense: a novel causal agent of anthracnose in avocado. Plant Pathol 60:899–908CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Simmonds JH (1965) A study of the species of Colletotrichum causing ripe fruit rots in Queensland. Queensland J Agric Anim Sci 22:437–459Google Scholar
  38. Stephenson SA, Green JR, Manners JM, Maclean DJ (1997) Cloning and characterisation of glutamine synthetase from Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and demonstration of elevated expression during pathogenesis on Stylosanthes guianensis. Curr Genet 31(5):447–454CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Sutton BC (1980) The Coelomycetes: fungi imperfecti with pycnidia, acervuli and stromata. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, KewGoogle Scholar
  40. Sutton BC (1992) The genus Glomerella and its anamorph Colletotrichum. In: Bailey JA, Jeger MJ (eds) Colletotrichum: Biology, Pathology and Control. CABI, Wallingford, pp 1–26Google Scholar
  41. Templeton MD, Rikkerink EHA, Solon SL, Crowhurst RN (1992) Cloning and molecular characterisation of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-encoding gene and cDNA from the plant pathogenic fungus Glomerella cingulata. Gene 122:225–230CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Uduyanga D, Manamgoda DS, Liu X, Chukeatirote E, Hyde KD (2013) What are the common anthracnose pathogens of tropical fruit? Fungal Divers 61:165–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Weir B, Johnston PR, Damm U (2012) The Colletotrichum gloeosporioides species complex. Stud Mycol 73:115–180CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. White TJ, Bruns T, Lee S, Taylor J (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: Innis MA, Gelfand DH, Sninsky JJ, White TJ (eds) PCR Protocols: A guide to Methods and Applications. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 315–322Google Scholar
  45. Willingham SL, Cooke AW, Coates LM, Pegg KP (2000) Pepper spot: A new preharvest Colletotrichum disease of avocado cv. Hass. Australas Plant Pathol 29:151Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Australasian Plant Pathology Society Inc. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Horticulture and Forestry Science, Agri-Science Queensland, Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Gatton Research FacilityGattonAustralia
  2. 2.Plant Pathology Herbarium, Biosecurity Queensland, Department of Agriculture and FisheriesDutton ParkAustralia
  3. 3.Horticulture and Forestry Science, Agri-Science Queensland, Department of Agriculture and FisheriesDutton ParkAustralia
  4. 4.School of Agriculture and Food SciencesUniversity of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia

Personalised recommendations