Zearalenone content in animal fodder samples in relation to weather conditions in Colonia Benítez, northeastern Argentina

Abstract

The northeast of Argentina is a livestock production area. Generally cattle in this area feed on grasslands and improved pastures, but their food is often supplemented with grains, protein sources and reserves in the form of hay and/or silage. However, these food sources may be colonised by fungi including Fusarium, which produce mycotoxins, one of which is zearalenone (ZEA). The aim of this study was to relate the natural occurrence of ZEA in Colonia Benítez (Chaco Province) to the temperature and moisture of the autumn preceding the winter collection of fodder samples in 2012 and 2013. The forage resources of 2012 had high ZEA contents (310 to 6279 μg/kg) in 47 % of the samples, whereas those from 2013 exhibited intermediate values of ZEA contents (131 to 296 μg/kg) in 41.6 % of the samples and low contents (< 2 to 91 μg/kg) in 50 % of the samples. The incidence of F. semitectum was higher in 2012 compared to 2013. The high concentration of ZEA found in many of the forage samples collected in July 2012 was preceded by autumn weather conditions that were exceptionally conducive to plant stress. In contrast, when meteorological factors were within normal values (as in the autumn of 2013), the pasture and feed collected in winter showed intermediate to low concentrations of ZEA. The temperature and moisture conditions prevailing during the autumn of 2012 accelerated canopy senescence of the forage plants available for livestock at the beginning of the winter. Consequently, the weather conditions during the autumn 2012 likely favoured the sharp increase in ZEA content in these pastures when compared to the other two seasons.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

References

  1. Behrendt U, Stauber T, Muller T (2004) Microbial communities in the phyllosphere of grasses on fenland at different intensities of management. Grass Forage Sci 59:169–179

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Canosa F, Feldkamp C, Urruti J, Morris M, Moscoso M, (2013). Potencial de la producción ganadera argentina ante diferentes escenarios. Fundación Producir Conservando. Agosto 2013. http://producirconservando.org.ar/intercambio/docs/

  3. Carmona MA (2008) El manejo integrado de las enfermedades del cultivo de trigo. En: Información Técnica de trigo y otros cultivos de invierno, campaña 2008. Publicación Miscelánea N° 109. INTA EEA.Rafaela. Mayo de 2008. Pág. 44–49. Contamination of food crops pre- and postharvest. Plant Pathology 60, 150–163

  4. Chiossone G (2006) www.produccion-animal.com.ar/.../65Chiossone

  5. De Saeger S, Sibanda L, Van Peteghem C (2003) Analysis of zearalenone and α-zearalenol in animal feed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Anal Chim Acta 487:137–143

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Di Menna ME, Sprosen JM (1992) Fusarium in pasture. Fusarium species and zearalenone levels on single pasture species. Annual Report 1991/92 Fusarium toxins, infertility and ill-thrift page 9–10 AgResearch. Mycotoxin Research Group

  7. Di Menna ME, Lauren DR, Poole PR, Mortimer PH, Hill RA, Agnew MP (1987) Zearalenone in New Zealand pasture herbage and the mycotoxin-producing potential of Fusarium species from pasture. N Z J Agric Res 30(4):499–504

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. EFSA (2004) Opinion of the scientific panel on contaminants in the food chain on a request from the commission related to Zearalenone as undesirable substance in animal feed. The EFSA Journal 89:1–35

    Google Scholar 

  9. EFSA (2011) Scientific opinion on the risks for public health related to the presence of zearalenone in food. The EFSA Journal 9(6):2197

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Engels R, Krämer J (1996) Incidence of Fusaria and occurrence of selected Fusarium mycotoxins on Lolium spp. in Germany. Mycotoxin Res 12(1):31–40

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Eskola M, Kokkonen M, Rizzo A (2002) Application of manual and automated systems for purification of ochratoxine a and zearalenone in cereals with immunoaffinity column. J Agric Food Chem 50:41–47

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Fink-Gremmels J, Malekinejad H (2007) Clinical effects and biochemical mechanisms associated with exposure to the mycoestrogen zearalenone. Anim Feed Sci Technol 137:326–341

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Gerlach W, Nirenberg H (1982) The genus Fusarium – a pictorial atlas. Mitt Biol Bundesanst Land-Forstwirtsch Berlin-Dahlem 209:406 p

  14. Laser H, Opitz v. Boberfeld W, Wohler K, Wolf D (2003) Effects of the botanical composition and weather conditions on Mycotoxins in winter forage from grassland. Mycotoxin Res 19(1):87–90

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Leslie JF, Summerell BA (2006) The Fusarium laboratory manual. Blackwell Publishing Professional, Iowa, USA, 388 pp

  16. Louge Uriarte EL, Odriozola ER, Fernandez EL, Manazza J, Achilles E (2006) Primer hallazgo de zearalenona en pastura de una explotación ovina del sudeste bonaerense. 29° Congreso Argentino de Producción Animal. Mar del Plata. Buenos Aires

  17. Magan N, Medina A, Aldred D (2011) Possible climate- change effects on mycotoxin contamination of food crops pre and post-harvest. PlantPathol 60:150–163

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Nelson PE, Toussoun TA, Marasas WFO (1983) Fusarium species: an illustrated manual for identification. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, Pennsilvania, 183 p

  19. Quiroga MA (2002) Efectos de la intoxicación aguda por micotoxina T-2 en el ratón. In: Estudios histopatológicos, ultraestructurales, inmunohistoquímicos y lectinhistoquimicos. Doctoral. Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Tesis

    Google Scholar 

  20. Ramirez ML, Chiacchiera SM, Sulyok M, Nichea MJ, Palacios S, Gonzalez Pereyra ML, Krska R, Chulze SN (2012) Preliminary survey of zearalenone and other mycotoxins in Argentinean natural pastures intended for cattle feed. In: 7th conference of the world Mycotoxin forum and XIII the IUPAC international symposium on Mycotoxins and Phycotoxins, November 5–9, Rotterdam, pp. 131–132

    Google Scholar 

  21. Ramírez ML, Chulze SN, Torres AM, Zachetti VG, Nichea MJ, Cendoya E, Palacios SA (2014). Variación estacional de la presencia de micotoxinas en pasturas naturales destinadas a la alimentación bovina. SNS Revista N° 4, abril - junio 2014 ISSN 2314–2901/revistasns@senasa.gov.ar

  22. Reed KFM, Moore DD (2009) A preliminary survey of zearalenone and other mycotoxins in Australian silage and pasture. Anim Prod Sci 49:696–703

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Reed KFM, Walsh JR, McFarlane N, Sprague M (2004) Zearalenone and its presence in pasture. Animal Production in Australia 25:140–143

  24. Salvat AE, Balbuena O, Ricca A, Comerio RM, Rosello Brajovich JE, Rojas D, Berretta MF, Delssin E, Bedascarrasbure E, Salerno JC (2013a). Presence of zearalenone in cattle feeds during the winter in the province of Chaco (Argentina). 4th Latin american pesticide residue workshop. LAPRW. 2013a. Bogotá, Colombia. Mayo 26–29

  25. Salvat AE, Balbuena O, Ricca A, Comerio RM, Rosello Brajovich JE, Rojas D, Berretta MF, Delssin E, Bedascarrasbure E, Salerno JC (2013b) Presencia de zearalenona en pasturas del Este de Chaco. Revista RIA 39(1):31–36

    Google Scholar 

  26. Salvat AE, Comerio RM, Balbuena O, Rosello Brajovich JE, Ricca A, Rojas CD, Ronco S, Salerno JC (2015) Zeranol y metabolitos urinarios de zearalenona en bovinos para carne. Revista RIA 41(2):149–154

    Google Scholar 

  27. Schuhmacher R, Krska R, Grasserbauer M, Edinger W, Lew H (1998) Immunoaffinity column versus conventional clean-up: a method comparison study for the determination of zearalenone in corn. Fresenius Journal of Analytical Chemistry 360(2):241–245

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. SENASA (2010-2011) Plan CREHA http://www.senasa.gob.ar/cadena-animal/bovinos-y-bubalinos/produccion-primaria/control-de-residuos-plan-creha

  29. Simón MR, Fleitas MC, Schalamuk S (2013) Recent Advances on Integrated Foliar Disease Management with Special Emphasis in Argentina Wheat Production. Chapter 1 INTECH. doi:10.5772/51950

  30. Skladanka J, Nedelník J, Vojtech A, Dolezal P, Moravcová H, Dohnal V (2011) Forage as a primary source of Mycotoxins in animal diets. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8:37–50

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. Skladanka J, Vojtech A, Dolezal P, Nedelnik J, Kizek R, Linduskova H, Edison J, Alba Mejia A, Nawrath A (2013) How do grass species, season and ensiling influence Mycotoxin content in forage? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10:6084–6095

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. Smith JE, Moss MO (1985) Mycotoxins. Formation, Analysis and Significance. John Wiley & Sons. Great Britain, 148 p

  33. Towers NR (1996). Oestrogenic fungal toxins affecting sheep and cattle production. Proceedings of the Society of Sheep and Beef Cattle Veterinarians of the New Zealand Veterinary Association. pp 43–58, Jan 1996

Download references

Acknowledgments

We appreciate the support of Eduardo Delssin, former Director of the Centro Regional Chaco-Formosa at INTA, Enrique Bedascarrasbure, former Director of the Centro de Investigación de Agroindustria (CIA), Dr. Luis Samartino, researcher at the Institute of Pathobiology, and Dr. Roberto Lecuona, from the Institute of Microbiology and Agricultural Zoology of INTA Castelar (Buenos Aires). We also thank Juan Carlos Torres and the Technicians Victoria Silva and Rosa Salvatierra for their technical assistance. This work was supported by the project INTA (PNSA 1115054) and (PRET) CHAFOR-1241305. “Contribución al Desarrollo Territorial del Este de la Provincia del Chaco”.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to R. C. Moschini.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Salvat, A.E., Moschini, R.C., Comerio, R.M. et al. Zearalenone content in animal fodder samples in relation to weather conditions in Colonia Benítez, northeastern Argentina. Australasian Plant Pathol. 45, 251–259 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13313-016-0414-7

Download citation

Keywords

  • Weather variables
  • Zearalenone
  • Zeranol
  • Fusarium semitectum
  • Northeastern Argentina