Biplot analysis of genotype × environment interactions and identification of stable sources of resistance to Ascochyta blight in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)
Ascochyta blight (AB) caused by Ascochyta rabei (Pass.) Labr. is one of the most important constraints that limits the productivity of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). The absence of high levels of stable resistant sources to the pathogen has necessitated the continued search and identification of new sources of resistance. The main aim of this work was to identify new sources of resistance to AB and validate their stability across multi-environments. A collection of 424 elite chickpea genotypes were evaluated for AB resistance under controlled environmental conditions in 2005–2006 at the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru, India. Fifty-one genotypes with AB severity ≤3.0 (based on the 1–9 scale) were selected for a second round of evaluation in 2006–2007 at ICRISAT. Based on the results obtained during both years, an Ascochyta Blight Nursery (ABN) was established to evaluate the selected 29 chickpea genotypes, including 4 germplasm lines, 24 breeding lines and a highly susceptible line. The nursery was evaluated at 3 locations (Almora, Dhaulakuan and Ludhiana) in India over three crop seasons (2007–2008, 2008–2009 and 2009–2010) and under controlled environment conditions at ICRISAT to further confirm the stable performance of these genotypes. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant effects of year, location (year), genotype and genotype × location (year) interaction. The genotype and genotype × environment (GGE) biplot analyses of multi-environment data showed that resistance of five genotypes (EC 516934, ICCV 04537, ICCV 98818, EC 516850 and EC 516971) had mean disease severity ≤3.0 on the 1–9 scale and the reactions were consistent across the environments. Genotype EC 516934 was found resistant to AB at the seedling stage in the controlled environment at ICRISAT. The remaining genotypes showed moderately resistant reaction (3.0–5.0) to AB under controlled environment conditions. A significant positive correlation was found between the performance of the genotypes under controlled environment and field screening conditions (r = 0.70; P < 0.01). The resistant genotypes identified in the present study would be useful in breeding programs as stable resistant donors to evolve agronomically desirable AB resistant varieties.
KeywordsAscochyta blight Chickpea Genotype × environment interaction Resistant sources
This work was partially funded by the Council of Grain Growers Organization (COGGO), Western Australia under the research project CAN 091 122 039.
- Ambardar VK, Singh SK (1996) Identification and elucidation of Ascochyta rabiei isolates of chickpea in Jammu. Indian J Mycol Plant Pathol 26:4–8Google Scholar
- Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. FAOSTAT. Rome. Retrieved 15 May 2012 from http://faostat.fao.org
- Payne RW, Murray DA, Harding SA, Baird DB, Soutar DM (2010) GenStat for Windows (14th edition) introduction. VSN International, Hemel HempsteadGoogle Scholar
- Saraf CS, Rupela OP, Hegde DM, Yadav RL, Shivkumar BG, Bhattarai S, Razzaque MA, Sattar MA (1998) Biological nitrogen fixation and residual effects of winter grain legumes in rice and wheat cropping systems of the Indo-Gangetic plain. In: Kumar Rao JVDK, Johansen C, Rego TJ (eds) Residual effects of legumes in rice and wheat cropping systems of the Indo-Gangetic plain. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, pp 14–30Google Scholar
- Sharma YR, Singh G, Kaur L (1995) A rapid technique for Ascochyta blight resistance in chickpea. Int Chickpea Pigeonpea Newsl 2:34–35Google Scholar
- Sharma M, Kiran Babu T, Gaur PM, Ghosh R, Rameshwar T, Chaudhary RG, Upadhyay JP, Gupta O, Saxena DR, Kaur L, Dubey SC, Anandani VP, Harer PN, Pande S (2012) Identification and multi-environment validation of resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris in chickpea. Field Crop Res 135:82–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tivoli B, Baranger A, Avila CM, Banniza S, Barbetti M, Chen WD, Davidson J, Lindeck K, Kharrat M, Rubiales D, Sadiki M, Sillero JC, Sweetingham M, Muehlbauer FJ (2006) Screening techniques and sources of resistance to foliar diseases caused by major necrotrophic fungi in grain legumes. Euphytica 147:223–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Varshney R, Pande S, Kannan S, Mahendar T, Sharma M, Gaur P, Hoisington D (2009) Assessment and comparison of AFLP and SSR based molecular genetic diversity in Indian isolates of Ascochyta rabiei, a causal agent of Ascochyta blight in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Mycol Prog 8(2):87–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yan WK, Kang MS, Ma B, Woods S, Cornelius PL (2007) GGE biplot vs. AMMI analysis of genotype-by-environment data. Crop Sci 47:641–653Google Scholar