Skip to main content
Log in

Phytophthora cinnamomi visible necrotic lesion-colonisation relationships in native flora

  • Published:
Australasian Plant Pathology Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Relationships were examined between visible necrotic lesion and colonisation following stem wound inoculated of native plant species of the South-West Botanical Province of Western Australia with Phytophthora cinnamomi. Relationships were determined over a wide range of biotic and abiotic environments of plant taxa, host susceptibility, isolate, phosphite fungicide spray, native community and glasshouse environments, seasons and soil types. Consistent significant relationships were found between necrotic lesions and colonisation over the different environments. Visible necrotic lesions were either in-phase with or greater than colonisation in 55 % of the environments analysed. ANCOVA interactions of total visible necrotic lesion with treatments were not significant for 10 out of 14 interactions, indicating homogeneity of slopes in the majority of cases. Rather than having distinct hemibiotrophic stages, P. cinnamomi switches between necrotic lesions and colonisation of symptomless tissue depending on environmental conditions. Average necrotic lesion/taxa in stems following wound inoculation was significantly positively correlated with mortality following soil inoculation. Determination of visible necrotic lesion was 10 times quicker and 30 times cheaper than colonisation, giving considerable savings for large experiments. Quantification of necrotic lesion-colonisation relationships aids determination of mechanisms of pathogen invasion and host resistance.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Barrett S (2003) Monitoring of aerial phosphite applications for the control of Phytophthora cinnamomi in the Albany district. In: McComb JA, Hardy GEStJ, Tommerup IC (eds) Phytophthora in forests and natural ecosystems. 2nd International IUFRO Working Party 7.02.09 Meeting, Albany, W. Australia. Murdoch University Print, Murdoch, pp. 132–137

  • Boesewinkel HJ (1976) Storage of fungal cultures in water. Trans Brit Mycol Soc 66:183–185

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bunny FJ, Crombie DS, Williams MR (1995) Growth of lesions of Phytophthora cinnamomi in stems and roots of jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) in relation to rainfall and stand density in mediterranean forest of Western Australia. Can J For Res 25:961–969

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cahill D, Legge N, Grant B, Weste G (1989) Cellular and histological changes induced by Phytophthora cinnamomi in a group of plant species ranging from fully susceptible to fully resistant. Phytopathology 79:417–424

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Davison EM, Stukely MJC, Crane CE, Tay FCS (1994) Invasion of phloem and xylem of woody stems and roots of Eucalyptus marginata and Pinus radiata by Phytophthora cinnamomi. Phytopathology 84:335–340

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dixon KW, Thinlay, Sivasithamparam K (1984) Technique for rapid assessment of tolerance of Banksia spp. to root rot caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi. Plant Dis 67:1077–1080

    Google Scholar 

  • Hardy GEStJ (2000) Phytophthora root and collar rot in rehabilitated bauxite mines and the adjacent Eucalyptus marginata (jarrah) forest of Western Australia. In: Hansen EM, Sutton W (eds) Phytophthora diseases of forest trees. Proceedings from the first international meeting on Phytophthora in forest and wildland ecosystems, IUFRO Working Party 7.02.09 Meeting, Grants Pass, Oregon USA. Oregon State University, Corvallis, pp 77–81

  • Havel JJ (1975) Site-vegetation mapping in the northern jarrah forest (Darling Range). 1. Definition of site-vegetation types. Bulletin 86, Forests Department, Perth

  • Hein I, Gilroy EM, Armstrong MR, Birch PRJ (2009) The zig-zag-zig in oomycete-plant interactions. Mol Plant Pathol 10:547–562

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hüberli D, Tommerup IC, Hardy GEStJ (2000) False-negative isolations or absence of lesions may cause mis-diagnosis of diseased plants infected with Phytophthora cinnamomi. Australas Plant Pathol 29:164–169

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hüberli D, Tommerup IC, Colqhhoun IJ, Hardy GEStJ (2002a) Evaluation of resistance to Phytophthora cinnamomi in seed-grown trees and clonal lines of Eucalyptus marginata inoculated in lateral branches and roots. Plant Pathol 51:435–442

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hüberli D, Tommerup IC, Calver MC, Colqhhoun IJ, Hardy GEStJ (2002b) Temperature and inoculation method influence disease phenotypes and mortality of Eucalyptus marginata clonal lines inoculated with Phytophthora cinnamomi. Australas Plant Pathol 31:107–118

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hüberli D, Shearer BL, Calver MC, Paap T, et al (2008) Research into natural and induced resistance in Australian native vegetation of Phytophthora cinnamomi and innovative methods to contain and/or eradicate within localised incursions in areas of high biodiversity in Australia. Does the physiological status of the plant at the time of spraying affect the efficacy of phosphite? Tender Number 19/2005, Sub project 19.2.3. Australian Government Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Canberra

  • Jones RW, Ospina-Geraldo M (2011) Novel cellulose-binding-domain protein in Phytophthora is cell wall localized. PLoS One 6(8):e23555. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0023555

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kirby KN (1993) Advanced data analysis with SYSTAT. Van Nostrad Reinhold, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Kogel K-H, Franken P, Hückelhoven R (2006) Endophyte or parasite – what decides? Curr Opin Plant Biol 9:358–363

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lee S-J, Rose JKC (2010) Mediation of the transition from biotrophy to necrotrophy in hemibiotrophic plant pathogens by secreted effector proteins. Plant Signal Behav 5:769–772

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Marks GC, Smith IW, Kassaby FY (1981) Trunk infection of Eucalyptus species by Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands: a preliminary report. Aust For Res 11:257–267

    Google Scholar 

  • McCredie TA, Dixon KW, Sivasithamparam K (1985) Variability in the resistance of Banksia L.f. species to Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands. Aust J Bot 33:629–637

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Moran MD (2003) Arguments for rejecting the sequential Bonferroni in ecological studies. Oikos 100:403–405

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nutter FW, Esker PD, Netto RAC (2006) Disease assessment concepts and the advancements made in improving the accuracy and precision of plant disease data. Eur J Plant Pathol 115:95–103

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • O’Gara EO, McComb JA, Colqhhoun IJ, Hardy GEStJ (1997) The infection of non-wounded and wounded periderm tissue at the lower stem of Eucalyptus marginata by zoospores of Phytophthora cinnamomi, in a rehabilitated bauxite mine. Australas Plant Pathol 26:135–141

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Oliver RP, Ipcho SVS (2004) Arabidopsis pathology breathes new life into the necrotrophs-vs.-biotrophs classification of fungal pathogens. Mol Plant Pathol 5:347–352

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Pilbeam RA, Colquhoun IJ, Shearer B, Hardy GEStJ (2000) Phosphite concentration: its effect on phytotoxicity symptoms and colonisation by Phytophthora cinnamomi in three understorey species of Eucalyptus marginata forest. Australas Plant Pathol 29:86–95

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rey P, Benhamou N, Tirilly Y (1998) Ultrastructural and cytochemical investigation of asymptomatic infection by Pythium spp. Phytopathology 88:234–244

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Shea SR (1979) Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands – a collar rot pathogen of Banksia grandis Willd. Australas Plant Pathol 8:32–34

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shea SR, Shearer B, Tippett J (1982) Recovery of Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands from vertical roots of jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata Sm). Australas Plant Pathol 11:25–28

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shearer BL, Crane CE (2009) Influence of site and rate of low-volume aerial phosphite spray on lesion development of Phytophthora cinnamomi and phosphite persistence in Lambertia inermis var. inermis and Banksia grandis. Australas Plant Pathol 38:288–304

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Shearer BL, Crane CE (2011) Habitat suitability of soils from a topographic gradient across the Fitzgerald River National Park for invasion by Phytophthora cinnamomi. Australas Plant Pathol 40:168–179

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shearer BL, Crane CE (2012) Variation within the genus Lambertia in efficacy of low-volume aerial phosphite spray for control of Phytophthora cinnamomi. Australas Plant Pathol 41:47–57

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Shearer BL, Fairman RG (2007a) A stem injection of phosphite protects Banksia species and Eucalyptus marginata from Phytophthora cinnamomi for at least four years. Australas Plant Pathol 36:78–86

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Shearer BL, Fairman RG (2007b) Application of phosphite in a high-volume foliar spray delays and reduces the rate of mortality of four Banksia species infected with Phytophthora cinnamomi. Australas Plant Pathol 36:358–368

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Shearer BL, Tippett JT (1989) Jarrah dieback: the dynamics and management of Phytophthora cinnamomi in the jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) forest of south western Australia. Research Bulletin 3. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth

  • Shearer BL, Michaelsen BJ, Warren HJ (1987a) Comparative behaviour of Phytophthora species in the secondary phloem of stems and excised roots of Banksia grandis and Eucalyptus marginata. Aust J Bot 35:103–110

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shearer BL, Shea SR, Deegan PM (1987b) Temperature-growth relationships of Phytophthora cinnamomi in the secondary phloem of roots of Banksia grandis and Eucalyptus marginata. Phytopathology 77:661–665

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shearer BL, Michaelsen BJ, Somerford PJ (1988) Effects of isolate and time of inoculation on invasion of secondary phloem of Eucalyptus spp. and Banksia grandis by Phytophthora spp. Plant Dis 72:121–126

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shearer BL, Crane CE, Cochrane A (2004) Quantification of the susceptibility of the native flora of the South-west Botanical Province, Western Australia, to Phytophthora cinnamomi. Aust J Bot 52:435–443

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shearer BL, Fairman RG, Grant MJ (2006) Effective concentration of phosphite in controlling Phytophthora cinnamomi following stem injection of Banksia species and Eucalyptus marginata. For Pathol 36:119–135

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shearer BL, Crane CE, Barrett S, Cochrane A (2007a) Phytophthora cinnamomi invasion, a major threatening process to conservation of flora diversity in the South-west Botanical Province of Western Australia. Aust J Bot 55:225–238

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shearer BL, Crane CE, Barrett S, Cochrane A (2007b) Assessment of threatened flora susceptibility to Phytophthora cinnamomi by analysis of disease progress curves in shadehouse and natural environments. Australas Plant Pathol 36:609–620

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shearer BL, Crane CE, Cochrane JA (2010) Variation in susceptibility to Phytophthora cinnamomi infection within the genus Lambertia. Aust J Bot 58:575–585

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shearer BL, Crane CE, Scott PR, Hardy GEstJ (2012) Variation between plant species of in-planta concentration and effectiveness of low-volume phosphite spray on Phytophthora cinnamomi lesion development. Australas Plant Pathol 41. doi:10.1007/s13313-011-0115-1, in press

  • Smillie R, Grant BR, Guest D (1989) The mode of action of phosphite: evidence for both direct and indirect modes of action on three Phytophthora spp. in plants. Phytopathology 79:921–926

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Smith B (1994) Effects of phosphonic acid and sodium silicate on lesion development of Phytophthora cinnamomi and histological responses in host species endemic to Western Australia. Honours thesis, University of Western Australia, Nedlands

  • Stukely MJC, Crane CE (1994) Genetically based resistance of Eucalyptus marginata to Phytophthora cinnamomi. Phytopathology 84:650–656

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Thines M, Kamoun S (2010) Oomycete-plant coevolution: recent advances and future prospects. Curr Opin Plant Biol 13:427–433

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Tippett JT, Hill TC (1983) The relationship between bark moisture and invasion of Eucalyptus marginata by Phytophthora cinnamomi. Australas Plant Pathol 12:40–41

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tippett JT, O’Brien TP, Holland AA (1977) Ultrastructural changes in eucalypt roots caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi. Physiol Plant Pathol 11:279–286

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tippett JT, Hill TC, Shearer BL (1985) Resistance of Eucalyptus spp. to invasion by Phytophthora cinnamomi. Aust J Bot 33:409–418

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tippett JT, Crombie DS, Hill TC (1987) Effect of phloem water relations on the growth of Phytophthora cinnamomi in Eucalyptus marginata. Phytopathology 77:246–250

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tippett JT, McGrath JF, Hill TC (1989) Site and seasonal effects on susceptibility of Eucalyptus marginata to Phytophthora cinnamomi. Aust J Bot 37:481–490

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tynan KM, Scott ES, Sedgley M (1998) Evaluation of Banksia species for response to Phytophthora infection. Plant Pathol 47:446–455

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tynan KM, Wilkinson CJ, Holmes JM, Dell B, Colquhoun IJ, McComb JA, Hardy GEStJ (2001) The long-term ability of phosphite to control Phytophthora cinnamomi in two native plant communities of Western Australia. Aust J Bot 49:761–770

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wilkinson L (2002) SYSTAT 10.2. Statistics I. SYSTAT Software Inc, California

  • Wilkinson CJ, Holmes JM, Tynan KM, Colquhoun IJ, McComb JA, Hardy GEStJ, Dell B (2001) Ability of phosphite applied in a glasshouse trial to control Phytophthora cinnamomi in five plant species native to Western Australia. Australas Plant Pathol 30:343–351

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We thank the National Heritage Trust, the Director of Department of Environment and Conservation Science Division and Bankwest Landscope Conservation Visa Card for funding, A Cochrane and M. Spencer for collecting seed, P. Goodgame, G. Hardy, R. Saw, P. Scott, C. Shearer, M. Shearer, P. Shearer, N. Sinton and J. Webster for help with inoculation, harvesting and lesion assessment, M. Williams for statistical advice and C. Dunne, J. McComb and M. Shearer for checking the manuscript.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to B. L. Shearer.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Shearer, B.L., Crane, C.E. Phytophthora cinnamomi visible necrotic lesion-colonisation relationships in native flora. Australasian Plant Pathol. 41, 633–644 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13313-012-0151-5

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13313-012-0151-5

Keywords

Navigation