Flow Cytometry in Pediatric Malignancies
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The utility of flow cytometry as a useful diagnostic modality for the assessment of hematopoietic neoplasms has been established beyond doubt. In fact, it is now an integral part of the diagnosis and classification of various diseases like leukemias and lymphomas along with molecular studies and cytogenetics. Prognostication and disease monitoring by flow cytometry is also being recognized increasingly as one of the important fortes. This is evident by the number of articles in the published in literature on the minimal residual disease detection by flow cytometry especially in the last decade or so. To add to this, ever growing list of utilities in hematopoietic malignancies, many nonhematopoietic neoplasms can also be analyzed by flow cytometry. The examples include fluid specimens from serous cavity effusions and samples from solid tissues like lymph nodes, reticulo-endothelial tissue, central nervous system tissue, etc. Flow cytometry technique provides a unique blend of rapidity, high sensitivity and specificity compared to cyto-morphology and conventional immunohistochemical staining. It is also remarkable for simultaneous analysis of more than one marker on the cells. Evaluation of limited samples such as cerebrospinal fluid or fine needle aspiration samples makes Flow cytometry a valuable tool. DNA ploidy analysis and assessment of pediatric non-hematopoietic neoplasms by Flow cytometry has envisaged the utility vista of this technique. This review is aimed at providing an insight into the applications of flow cytometry in pediatric malignancies.
KeywordsDiagnosis Immunophenotyping Lymphoma Leukemia
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