Human milk banking guidelines

Abstract

Justification

WHO and UNICEF state that the use of human milk from other sources should be the first alternative when it is not possible for the mother to breastfeed. Human milk banks should be made available in appropriate situations. The IYCF Chapter is actively concerned about the compelling use of formula feeds in the infants because of the non availability of human breast milk banks.

Process

A National Consultative Meet for framing guidelines was summoned by the IYCF Chapter and the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India on 30th June, 2013, with representations from various stakeholders. The guidelines were drafted after an extensive literature review and discussions. Though these guidelines are based on the experiences and guidelines from other countries, changes have been made to suit the Indian setup, culture and needs, without compromising scientific evidence.

Objectives

To ensure quality of donated breast milk as a safe end product.

Recommendations

Human Milk Banking Association should be constituted, and human milk banks should be established across the country. National coordination mechanism should be developed with a secretariat and technical support to follow-up on action in States. Budgetary provisions should be made available for the activities.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. 1.

    Das BK, Mishra RN, Mishra OP, Bhargava V, Prakash A. Comparative outcome of low birth weight babies. Indian Pediatr. 1993;30:15–21.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Bharati P, Pal M, Bandyopadhyay M, Bhakta A, Chakraborty S, Bharati P. Prevalence and causes of low birth weight in India. Malayasian J Nutr. 2011;17: 301–313.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Arslanoglu S, Moro GE, Bellu R, Turoli D, De NG, Tonetto P, et al. Presence of human milk bank is associated with elevated rate of exclusive breastfeeding in VLBW infants. J Perinat Med. 2013;41:129–131.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Cristofalo EA, Schanler RJ, Blanco CL, Sullivan S, Trawoeger R, Kiechl-Kohlendorfer U, et al. Randomized trial of exclusive human milk versus preterm formula diets in extremely premature infants. J Pediatr. 2013;163: 1592–1595.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    De NG, Berti M, De NM, Bertino E. Early enteral feeding with human milk for VLBW infants. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2012;26:69–73.

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Israel-Ballard K, Donovan R, Chantry C, Coutsoudis A, Sheppard H, Sibeko L, et al. Flash-heat inactivation of HIV-1 in human milk: a potential method to reduce postnatal transmission in developing countries. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007;45:318–323.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Terpstra FG. Antimicrobial and antiviral effect of hightemperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization applied to human milk. Breastfeed Med. 2007;2:27–33.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Burton P, Kennedy K, Ahluwalia JS, Nicholl R, Lucas A, Fewtrell MS. Randomized trial comparing the effectiveness of 2 electric breast pumps in the NICU. J Hum Lact. 2013;29:412–419.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Fewtrell MS, Lucas P, Collier S, Singhal A, Ahluwalia JS, Lucas A. Randomized trial comparing the efficacy of a novel manual breast pump with a standard electric breast pump in mothers who delivered preterm infants. Pediatrics. 2001;107:1291–1297.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Gransden WR, Webster M, French GL, Phillips I. An outbreak of Serratia marcescens transmitted by contaminated breast pumps in a special care baby unit. J Hosp Infect. 1986;7:149–154.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Breast Pumps. US FDA, Heal. Cent. Devices Radiol. Center for Devices and Radiological Health; 2013 Available from: http://www.fda.gov/MedicalDevices/ProductsandMedicalProcedures/HomeHealthandConsumer/ConsumerProducts/BreastPumps/ucm061950.htm. Accessed November 14, 2013.

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Janjindamai W, Thatrimontrichai A, Maneenil G, Puwanant M. Soft plastic bag instead of hard plastic container for long-term storage of breast milk. Indian J Pediatr. 2013;80:809–813.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Donor Breast Milk Banks: the Operation of Donor Milk Bank Services. NICE Clinical Guideline 93. Available from: http://guidance.nice.org.uk/cg93. Accessed October 17, 2013.

  14. 14.

    N, Pickler RH, Munro C, Shotwell J. Contamination in expressed breast milk following breast cleansing. J Hum Lact. 1997;13:127–130.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Arnold LD. A brief look at drip milk and its relation to donor human milk banking. J Hum Lact. 1997;13:323–324.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Prime DK, Garbin CP, Hartmann PE, Kent JC. Simultaneous breast expression in breastfeeding women is more efficacious than sequential breast expression. Breastfeed Med. 2012;7:442–447.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Morera PS, Castellote Bargallo AI, Lopez Sabater MC. Evaluation by high-performance liquid chromatography of the hydrolysis of human milk triglycerides during storage at low temperatures. J Chromatogr A. 1998;823:467–474.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    CDC. Proper Handling and Storage of Human Milk. Recommendations. Breastfeeding. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/recommendations/handling_breastmilk.htm. Accessed October 17, 2013.

  19. 19.

    Simmer K, Hartmann B. The known and unknowns of human milk banking. Early Hum Dev. 2009;85:701–704.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Hartmann BT, Pang WW, Keil AD, Hartmann PE, Simmer K. Best practice guidelines for the operation of a donor human milk bank in an Australian NICU. Early Hum Dev. 2007;83:667–673.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    ABM Clinical Protocol #8: Human Milk Storage for home use for full term infants. Revision March 2010. Breastfeed Med. 2000; 5.

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Arnold LD. The cost-effectiveness of using banked donor milk in the neonatal intensive care unit: prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis. J Hum Lact. 2002;18:172–177.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Consortia

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Satish Tiwari.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Bharadva, K., Tiwari, S., Mishra, S. et al. Human milk banking guidelines. Indian Pediatr 51, 469–474 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13312-014-0424-x

Download citation

Keywords

  • Child survival
  • Human milk banking
  • Malnutrition