, Volume 9, Issue 4, pp 687–701 | Cite as

Classification of Sleep Disorders

  • Michael J. ThorpyEmail author


The classification of sleep disorders is necessary to discriminate between disorders and to facilitate an understanding of symptoms, etiology, and pathophysiology that allows for appropriate treatment. The earliest classification systems, largely organized according to major symptoms (insomnia, excessive sleepiness, and abnormal events that occur during sleep), were unable to be based on pathophysiology because the cause of most sleep disorders was unknown. These 3 symptom-based categories are easily understood by physicians and are therefore useful for developing a differential diagnosis. The International Classification of Sleep Disorders, version 2, published in 2005 and currently undergoing revision, combines a symptomatic presentation (e.g., insomnia) with 1 organized in part on pathophysiology (e.g., circadian rhythms) and in part on body systems (e.g., breathing disorders). This organization of sleep disorders is necessary because of the varied nature and because the pathophysiology for many of the disorders is still unknown. The International Classification of Sleep Disorders, version 2 provides relevant diagnostic and epidemiological information on sleep disorders to more easily differentiate between the disorders.


Classification ICSD-2 Sleep disorders Parasomnias Insomnia Hypersomnia 


Required Author Forms

Disclosure forms provided by the authors are available with the online version of this article.

Supplementary material

13311_2012_145_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (510 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 510 kb)


  1. 1.
    Association of Sleep Disorders Centers: Diagnostic Classification of Sleep and Arousal Disorders. Prepared by the Sleep Disorders Classification Committee, Roffwarg HP. Sleep 1979;2:1-137.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Diagnostic Classification Steering Committee. Thorpy MJ: International Classification of Sleep Disorders: Diagnostic and Coding Manual. Rochester: American Sleep Disorders Association, 1990.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    American Academy of Sleep Medicine: International Classification of Sleep Disorders: Diagnostic and Coding Manual, 2nd ed. Westchester: American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 2005.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Haynes SN, Adams A, Franzen M. The effects of pre-sleep stress on sleep-onset insomnia. J Abnorm Psychol 1981;90:601-606.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Morin CM. Definition of acute insomnia: diagnostic and treatment implications. Sleep Med Rev 2012;16:3-4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hauri PJ, Fischer J. Persistent psychophysiological (learned) insomnia. Sleep 1986;9:38-53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Edinger JD, Wyatt JK, Stepanski EJ, et al. Testing the reliability and validity of DSM-IV-TR and ICSD-2 insomnia diagnoses. Results of a multi-trait–multi-method analysis. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2011;68:992-1002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Edinger JD, Fins A. The distribution and clinical significance of sleep time misperceptions. Sleep 1995;18:232-239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Salin-Pascual RJ, Roehrs TA, Merlotti LA, et al. Long-term study of the sleep of insomnia patients with sleep state misperception and other insomnia patients. Am J Psychiatry 1992;149:904-908.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hauri PJ, Olmsted E. Childhood onset insomnia. Sleep 1980;3:59-65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bastien CB, Morin CM. Familial incidence of insomnia. J Sleep Res 2000;9:49-54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mastin DF, Bryson J, Corwyn R. Assessment of sleep hygiene using the Sleep Hygiene Index. J Behav Med 2006;29:223-227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Morin CM, Hauri PJ, Espie CA, et al. Nonpharmacologic treatment of chronic insomnia. An American Academy of Sleep Medicine Review. Sleep 1986;22:1134-1156.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ferber R: Clinical assessment of child and adolescent sleep disorders. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin North Am 1996;5:569-579.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Owens JA, Mindell JA. Pediatric insomnia. Pediatr Clin North Am 2011;58:555-569.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Shirlow MJ, Mathers CD: A study of caffeine consumption and symptoms: indigestion, palpitations, tremor, headache and Insomnia. Int J Epidemiol 1985;14:239-248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Roehrs T, Roth T. Medication and substance abuse. In: Kryger MH, Roth T, Dement WC, eds: Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine, 5th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 2009:1512-1523.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Buysse DJ, Reynolds CF 3rd, Kupfer DJ, et al. Clinical diagnoses in 216 insomnia patients using the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD), DSM-IV and ICD-10 categories: a report from the APA/NIMH DSM-IV field trial. Sleep 1994;17:630-637.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gislason T, Almqvist M: Somatic disease and sleep complaints: an epidemiological study of 3201 Swedish men. Acta Med Scand 1987;221:475-581.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Singareddy R, Vgontzas AN, Fernandez-Mendoza J, et al.. Risk factors for incident chronic insomnia: a general population prospective study. Sleep Med 2012;13:346-353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ohayon MM. Prevalence of DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of insomnia: Distinguishing insomnia related to mental disorders from sleep disorders. J Psychiatr Res 1997;31:333-346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Schweitzer PK. Drugs that disturb sleep and wakefulness. In:c Kryger MH, Roth T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine, 5th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 2009:542-560.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kahn A, Rebuffat E, Blum D, et al. Difficulty in initiating and maintaining sleep associated with cow's milk allergy in infants. Sleep 1987;10:116-121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bradley TD, McNicholas WT, Rutherford R, et al. Clinical and physiological heterogeneity of the central sleep apnea syndrome. Am Rev Respir Dis 1986;134:217-221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Thurnheer R. Diagnostic approach to sleep-disordered breathing. Expert Rev Respir Med 2011;5:573-589.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hall MJ, Xie A, Rutherford R, et al. Cycle length of periodic breathing in patients with and without heart failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996;154:376-381.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Naughton MT. Cheyne-Stokes respiration: friend or foe? Thorax 2012;67:357-360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Nicholson AN, Smith PA, Stone BM, et al. Altitude insomnia: studies during an expedition to the Himalayas. Sleep 1988;11:354-361.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bloch KE, Latshang TD, Turk AJ, et al. Nocturnal periodic breathing during acclimatization at very high altitude at Mount Muztagh Ata (7,546 m). Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2010;182:562-568.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Alattar MA, Scharf SM. Opioid-associated central sleep apnea: a case series. Sleep Breath 2009;13:201-206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Farnery R, Walker J, Cloward T, Rhondeau S: Sleep-disordered breathing associated with long-term opioid therapy. Chest 2003;123:632-639.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Durand M, Cabal L, Gonzalez F, et al. Ventilatory control and carbon dioxide response in preterm infants with idiopathic apnea. Am J Dis Child 1985;139:717-720.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    National Institutes of Health: Consensus Development Conference on Infantile Apnea and Home Monitoring, Sept 29 to Oct 1, 1986. Pediatrics 1987;79:292-299.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    The Report of an American Academy of Sleep Medicine Task Force: Sleep-related breathing disorders in adults: recommendations for syndrome definition and measurement techniques in clinical research. Sleep 1999;22:667-689.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Balk EM, Chung M, Moorthy D, et al. Future research needs for diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea: identification of future research needs from Comparative Effectiveness Review No. 32 [Internet]. Rockville: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US), 2012 Feb. Report No.: 12-EHC031-EF.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    American Thoracic Society: Standards and indications for cardiopulmonary sleep studies in children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996;153:866-878.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wise MS, Nichols CD, Grigg-Damberger MM, et al. Executive summary of respiratory indications for polysomnography in children: an evidence-based review. Sleep 2011;34:389-398AW.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Martin TJ, Sanders MH: Chronic alveolar hypoventilation: a review for clinicians. Sleep 1995;18:617-634.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bradley S, Solin P, Wilson J, et al. Hypoxemia and hypercapnia during exercise and sleep in patients with cystic fibrosis. Chest 1999;116:647-654.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gozal D, Marcus CL, Shoseyov D, Keens TG. Peripheral chemoreceptor function in children with the congenital central hypoventilation syndrome. J Appl Physiol 1993;74:379-387.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Marion TL, Bradshaw WT. Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome and the PHOX2B gene mutation. Neonatal Netw 2011;30:397-401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Fletcher EC, Levin DC. Cardiopulmonary hemodynamics during sleep in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the effect of short- and long-term oxygen. Chest 1984;85:6-14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Agarwal S, Richardson B, Krishnan V, et al. Interstitial lung disease and sleep: what is known? Sleep Med 2009;10:947-951.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Corda L, Novali M, Montemurro LT, et al. Predictors of nocturnal oxyhemoglobin desaturation in COPD.Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2011;179:192-197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Sanders MH, Newman AB, Haggerty CL, et al. Sleep and sleep-disordered breathing in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003;167:7-14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Alves RS, Resende MB, Skomro RP, et al. Sleep and neuromuscular disorders in children. Sleep Med Rev 2009;13:133-148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Labanowski M, Schmidt-Nowara W, Guilleminault C. Sleep and neuromuscular disease: frequency of sleep-disordered breathing in a neuromuscular disease clinic population. Neurology 1996;47:1173-1180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ahmed I, Thorpy M. Clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of narcolepsy. Clin Chest Med 2010;31:371-381.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Anic-Labat S, Guilleminault C, Kraemer HC, et al. Validation of a cataplexy questionnaire in 983 sleep-disorders patients. Sleep 1999;22:77-87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Mignot E, Lammers GJ, Ripley B, et al. The role of cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin measurement in the diagnosis of narcolepsy and other hypersomnias. Arch Neurol 2002;59:1553-1562.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Silber MH, Krahn LE, Olson EJ, Pankratz VS. The epidemiology of narcolepsy in Olmsted County, Minnesota: A population-based study. Sleep 2002;15;25:197-202.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kanbayashi T, Sagawa Y, Takemura F, et al. The pathophysiologic basis of secondary narcolepsy and hypersomnia. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2011;11:235-241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kanbayashi T, Abe M, Fujimoto S, et al. Hypocretin deficiency in Niemann-Pick type C with cataplexy. Neuropediatrics 2003;34:52-53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Arnulf I, Lin L, Gadoth N, et al. Kleine-Levin syndrome: a systematic study of 108 patients. Ann Neurol 2008;63:482-493.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Billiard M, Jaussent I, Dauvilliers Y, Besset A. Recurrent hypersomnia: a review of 339 cases. Sleep Med Rev 2011;15:247-257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Vernet C, Leu-Semenescu S, Buzare MA, Arnulf I. Subjective symptoms in idiopathic hypersomnia: beyond excessive sleepiness. J Sleep Res 2010;19:525-534.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Billiard M, Dauvillier Y: Idiopathic hypersomnia. Sleep Med Rev 2001;5:351-360.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Sasai T, Inoue Y, Komada Y, Sugiura T, Matsushima E. Comparison of clinical characteristics among narcolepsy with and without cataplexy and idiopathic hypersomnia without long sleep time, focusing on HLA-DRB1( *)1501/DQB1( *)0602 finding. Sleep Med 2009;10:961-966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Roth B. Narcolepsy and hypersomnia: review and classification of 642 personally observed cases. Schweiz Arch Neurol Neurochir Psychiat 1976;119:31-41.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Pallesen S, Saxvig IW, Molde H, et al. Brief report: behaviorally induced insufficient sleep syndrome in older adolescents: prevalence and correlates. J Adolesc 2011;34:391-395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Roehrs T, Zorick F, Sicklesteel J, et al. Excessive daytime sleepiness associated with insufficient sleep. Sleep 1983;6:319-325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Dauvilliers YA, Laberge L. Myotonic dystrophy type 1, daytime sleepiness and REM sleep dysregulation. Sleep Med Rev 2012. doi: 10.1016/j.smrv.2012.01.001.
  63. 63.
    Moreno-López C, Santamaría J, Salamero M, et al. Excessive daytime sleepiness in multiple system atrophy (SLEEMSA study). Arch Neurol 2011;68:223-230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Guilleminault C, Brooks SN. Excessive daytime sleepiness: a challenge for the practicing neurologist. Brain 2001;124:1282-1291.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Dauvilliers Y. Differential diagnosis in hypersomnia. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2006;6:156-162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Blum DE. New drugs for persons with epilepsy. Adv Neurol 1998;76:57-87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Buffett-Jerrott SE, Stewart SH. Cognitive and sedative effects of benzodiazepine use. Curr Pharm Des 2002;8:45-58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kaplan KA, Harvey AG. Hypersomnia across mood disorders: a review and synthesis. Sleep Med Rev 2009;13:275-285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Vgontzas AN, Bixler EO, Kales A, et al. Differences in nocturnal and daytime sleep between primary and psychiatric hypersomnia: diagnosis and treatment implications. Psychosom Med 2000;62:220-226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Saxvig IW, Pallesen S, Wilhelmsen-Langeland A, et al. Prevalence and correlates of delayed sleep phase in high school students. Sleep Med 2012;13:193-199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Weitzman ED, Czeisler CA, Coleman RM, et al. Delayed sleep phase syndrome: a chronobiological disorder with sleep-onset insomnia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1981;38:737-746.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Sack RL, Auckley D, Auger RR, et al. Circadian rhythm sleep disorders: part II, advanced sleep phase disorder, delayed sleep phase disorder, free-running disorder, and irregular sleep-wake rhythm. An American Academy of Sleep Medicine review. Sleep 2007;30:1484-1501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Moldofsky H, Musisi S, Phillipson EA. Treatment of advanced sleep phase syndrome by phase advance chronotherapy. Sleep 1986;9:61-65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Zhou QP, Jung L, Richards KC.The management of sleep and circadian disturbance in patients with dementia. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2012;12:193-204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Zee PC, Vitiello MV. Circadian rhythm sleep disorder: irregular sleep wake rhythm type. Sleep Med Clin 2009;4:213-218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Kokkoris CP, Weitzman ED, Pollak CP, et al. Long-term ambulatory monitoring in a subject with a hypernychthemeral sleep–wake cycle disturbance. Sleep 1980;2:347-354.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Emens JS, Lewy AJ, Lefler BJ, Sack RL. Relative coordination to unknown "weak zeitgebers" in free-running blind individuals. J Biol Rhythms 2005;20:159-167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Sack RL. Clinical practice. Jet lag. N Engl J Med 2010;362:440-447.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Arendt J. Managing jet lag: some of the problems and possible new solutions. Sleep Med Rev 2009;13:249-256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Akerstedt T. Shift work and disturbed sleep/wakefulness. Occup Med (Lond) 2003;53:89-94.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Wright KP Jr, Bogan RK, Wyatt JK. Shift work and the assessment and management of shift work disorder (SWD). Sleep Med Rev 2012. doi: 10.1016/j.smrv.2012.02.002.
  82. 82.
    Ancoli-Israel S, Parker L, Sinaee R, et al. Sleep fragmentation in patients from a nursing home. J Gerontol 1989;44:M18-M21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Bliwise DL, Watts RL, Rye DB, et al. Disruptive nocturnal behavior in Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 1995;8:107-110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Regestein QR, Monk TH. Delayed sleep phase syndrome: a review of its clinical aspects. Am J Psychiatry 1995;152:602-608.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Yamadera H, Takahashi K, Okawa M. A multicenter study of sleep wake rhythm disorders: clinical features of sleep-wake cycle rhythm disorders. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1996;50:195-201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Zucconi M, Manconi M, Bizzozero D, Rundo F, et al. EEG synchronisation during sleep-related epileptic seizures as a new tool to discriminate confusional arousals from paroxysmal arousals: preliminary findings. Neurol Sci 2005;26(suppl 3):s199-s204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Ohayon MM, Priest RG, Zulley J, Smirne S. The place of confusional arousals in sleep and mental disorders: findings in a general population sample of 13,057 subjects. J Nerv Ment Dis 2000;188:340-348.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Guilleminault C, Kirisoglu C, da Rosa AC, et al. Sleepwalking, a disorder of NREM sleep instability. Sleep Med 2006;7:163-170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Ohayon MM, Guilleminault C, Priest RG. Night terrors, sleepwalking, and confusional arousals in the general population: their frequency and relationship to other sleep and mental disorders. J Clin Psychiatry 1999;60:268-76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Szelenberger W, Niemcewicz S, Dabrowska AJ. Sleepwalking and night terrors: psychopathological and psychophysiological correlates. Int Rev Psychiatry 2005;17:263-270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Crisp AH, Matthews BM, Oakey M, Crutchfield M. Sleepwalking, night terrors, and consciousness. BMJ 1990;300:360-362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Schenck CH, Bundlie SR, Ettinger MG, et al. Chronic behavioral disorders of human REM sleep: a new category of parasomnia. Sleep 1986;9:293-306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Olson E, Boeve B, Silber M. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: demographic, clinical, and laboratory findings in 93 cases. Brain 2000;123:331-339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Goode GB. Sleep paralysis. Arch Neurol 1962;6:228-234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Sharpless BA, Barber JP. Lifetime prevalence rates of sleep paralysis: a systematic review. Sleep Med Rev 2011;15:311-315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Fisher CJ, Byrne J, Edwards T, et al. A psychophysiological study of nightmares. J Am Psychoanal Assoc 1970;18:747-782.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Levin R, Fireman G. Nightmare prevalence, nightmare distress, and self-reported psychological disturbance. Sleep 2002;25:205-212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Agargun MY, Kara H, Ozer OA, et al. Characteristics of patients with nocturnal dissociative disorders. Sleep Hypnosis 2001;3:131-134.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Rice E, Fisher C: Fugue states in sleep and wakefulness: A psychophysiological study. J Nerv Ment Dis 1976;163:79-87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Nocturnal Enuresis: The Management of Bedwetting in Children and Young People. National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK). London: Royal College of Physicians; 2010.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Yeung CK. Nocturnal enuresis (bedwetting). Curr Opin Urol 2003;13:337-343.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Vetrugno R, Lugaresi E, Ferini-Strambi L, Montagna P. Catathrenia (nocturnal groaning): What is it? Sleep 2008;31:308-309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Vetrugno R, Provini F, Plazzi G, et al. Catathrenia (nocturnal groaning): a new type of parasomnia. Neurology 2001;56:681-683.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Pearce JMS. Clinical features of the exploding head syndrome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1989;52:907-910.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Chakravarty A. Exploding head syndrome: report of two new cases. Cephalalgia 2008;28:399-400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Silber MH, Hansen MR, Girish M. Complex nocturnal visual hallucinations. Sleep 2002;25:484.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Ohayon MM, Priest RG, Caulet M, Guilleminault C. Hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations: pathological phenomena? Br J Psychiatry 1996;169:459-467.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Birketvedt GS, Florholmen J, Sundsfjord J, et al. Behavioral and neuroendocrine characteristics of the night-eating syndrome. JAMA 1999;282:657-663.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Schenck CH, Mahowald MW, Vinai P, et al. Defining the borders between Sleep-Related Eating Disorder and Night Eating Syndrome. Sleep Med 2012 (in press).Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Plazzi G, Montagna P, Meletti S, Lugaresi E. Polysomnographic study of sleeplessness and oneiricisms in the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Sleep Med 2002;3:279-282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Lugaresi E, Provini F, Cortelli P. Agrypnia excitata. Sleep Med 2011;12(suppl 2):S3-S10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Schenck CH, Mahowald MW. On the reported association of psychopathology with sleep terrors in adults. Sleep 2000;23:448-449.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Ekbom KA. Restless legs syndrome. Neurology 1960;10:868-873.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Earley CJ. Restless legs syndrome. N Engl J Med 2003;348:2103-2109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Symonds CP. Nocturnal myoclonus. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1953;16:166-171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Picchietti MA, Picchietti DL. Restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder in children and adolescents. Semin Pediatr Neurol 2008;15:91-99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Layzer RB, Rowland LP. Cramps. N Engl J Med 1971;285:31-40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Monderer RS, Wu WP, Thorpy MJ. Nocturnal leg cramps. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2010;10:53-59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Carra MC, Huynh N, Lavigne G. Sleep bruxism: a comprehensive overview for the dental clinician interested in sleep medicine. Dent Clin North Am 2012;56:387-413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Ware JC, Rugh J. Destructive bruxism: sleep stage relationship. Sleep 1988;11:172-181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Mayer G, Wilde-Frenz J, Kurella B. Sleep related rhythmic movement disorder revisited. J Sleep Res 2007;16:110-116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Sallustro F, Atwell CW. Body rocking, head banging and head rolling in normal children. J Pediatr 1978;93:704-708.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Patel SR, Blackwell T, Ancoli-Israel S, Stone KL. Sleep characteristics of self-reported long sleepers. Sleep 2012;35:641-648.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Léger D, Roscoat E, Bayon V, et al. Short sleep in young adults: insomnia or sleep debt? Prevalence and clinical description of short sleep in a representative sample of 1004 young adults from France. Sleep Med 2011;12:454-462.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Dalmasso F, Prota R. Snoring: analysis, measurements, clinical implications and applications. Eur Respir J 1996;9:146-159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Jennum P, Hein HO, Suadicani P, et al. Snoring, family history, and genetic markers in men. The Copenhagen Male Study. Chest 1995;107:1289-1293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Arkin AM. Sleep talking: a review. J Nerv Ment Dis 1966;143:101-122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Hublin C, Kaprio J, Partinen M, Koskenvuo M. Sleeptalking in twins: epidemiology and psychiatric comorbidity. Behav Genet 1998;28:289-298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Walters AS. Clinical identification of the simple sleep-related movement disorders. Chest 2007;131:1260-1266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Oswald I. Sudden bodily jerks on falling asleep. Brain 1959;82:92-93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Coulter DL, Allen RJ. Benign neonatal sleep myoclonus. Arch Neurol 1982;39:191-192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Maurer VO, Rizzi M, Bianchetti MG, Ramelli GP. Benign neonatal sleep myoclonus: a review of the literature. Pediatrics 2010;125:e919-e924.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Chervin RD, Consens FB, Kutluay E. Alternating leg muscle activation during sleep and arousals: a new sleep-related motor phenomenon? Mov Disord 2003;18:551-559.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Wichniak A, Tracik F, Geisler P, et al. Rhythmic feet movements while falling asleep. Mov Disord 2001;16:1164-1170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Roze E, Bounolleau P, Ducreux D, et al. Propriospinal myoclonus revisited: Clinical, neurophysiologic, and neuroradiologic findings. Neurology 2009;72:1301-1309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Tison F, Arne P, Dousset V, et al. Propriospinal myoclonus induced by relaxation and drowsiness. Rev Neurol (Paris) 1998;154:423-425.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Broughton R, Tolentino MA, Krelina M. Excessive fragmentary myoclonus in NREM sleep: a report of 38 cases. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1985;61:123-309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Frauscher B, Kunz A, Brandauer E, et al. Fragmentary myoclonus in sleep revisited: a polysomnographic study in 62 patients. Sleep Med 2011;12:410-415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Sabanayagam C, Shankar A. The association between active smoking, smokeless tobacco, second-hand smoke exposure and insufficient sleep. Sleep Med 2011;12:7-11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Perron S, Tétreault LF, King N, et al. Review of the effect of aircraft noise on sleep disturbance in adults. Noise Health 2012;14:58-67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Lugaresi E, Medori R, Montagna P, et al. Fatal familial insomnia and dysautonomia with selective degeneration of thalamic nuclei. N Engl J Med 1986;315:997-1003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Montagna P. Fatal familial insomnia and the role of the thalamus in sleep regulation. Handb Clin Neurol 2011;99:981-996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Spaeth M, Rizzi M, Sarzi-Puttini P. Fibromyalgia and sleep. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol 2011;25:227-239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Provini F, Plazzi G, Tinuper P, et al. Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy: a clinical and polygraphic overview of 100 consecutive cases. Brain 1999;122:1017-1031.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Bisulli F, Vignatelli L, Naldi I, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of a structured interview for nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (SINFLE): a proposal for developing diagnostic criteria. Sleep Med 2012;13:81-87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Rains JC, Poceta JS, Penzien DB. Sleep and headaches. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2008;8:167-175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Manni R, Ghiotto N. Hypnic headache.Handb Clin Neurol 2010;97:469-472.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Lee KJ. Nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux: assessment and clinical implications. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2011;17:105-107.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Orr WC. Gastrointestinal functioning during sleep. In: Lee-Chiong TL, Sateia MJ, Carskadon MA, eds. Sleep Medicine Philadelphia: Hanley & Belfus, 2002:463-470.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Nowlin JB, Troyer WG Jr, Collins WS, et al. The association of nocturnal angina pectoris with dreaming. Ann Intern Med 1965;63:1040-1046.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Verrier RL, Muller JE, Hobson JA. Sleep, dreams, and sudden death: the case for sleep as an autonomic stress test for the heart. Cardiovasc Res 1996;31:181-211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Roland MM, Baran AS, Richert AC. Sleep-related laryngospasm caused by gastroesophageal reflux. Sleep Med 2008;9:451-453.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Benca RM. Sleep in psychiatric disorders. Neurol Clin 1996;14:739-764.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Edinger JD, Bonnet MH, Bootzin RR, et al. American Academy of Sleep Medicine Work Group. Derivation of research diagnostic criteria for insomnia: report of an American Academy of Sleep Medicine Work Group. Sleep 2004;15;27:1567-1596.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    NIH State of the Science Conference statement on Manifestations and Management of Chronic Insomnia in Adults statement. J Clin Sleep Med 2005;1:412-421.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    NIH State-of-the-Science Conference Statement on manifestations and management of chronic insomnia in adults. NIH Consens State Sci Statements. 2005;22:1-30.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    American Pyschiatric Association. Sleep-wake disorders. Available at: Accessed: May 2012.
  158. 158.
    Billiard M. Diagnosis of narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia. An update based on the International classification of sleep disorders, 2nd ed. Sleep Med Rev 2007;11:377-388.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Guilleminault C, Hagen CC, Khaja AM. Catathrenia: parasomnia or uncommon feature of sleep disordered breathing? Sleep 2008;31:132-139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Schenck CH, Arnulf I, Mahowald MW. Sleep and sex: what can go wrong? A review of the literature on sleep related disorders and abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences. Sleep 2007;30:683-702.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Vignatelli L, Bisulli F, Zaniboni A, et al. Interobserver reliability of ICSD-R minimal diagnostic criteria for the parasomnias. J Neurol 2005;252:712-717.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics, Inc. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Montefiore Medical Center and the Albert Einstein College of MedicineNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations