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Table 1 A summary of the major cardiovascular safety trials in sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors

From: Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter-2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors: Comparing Trial and Real World Use (Study Protocol)

Medication Cardiovascular safety trial Trial characteristics Trial outcomes
Canagliflozin CANVAS [27] vs. placebo (n = 4330)
Inclusion criteria: age ≥50 years, high CV risk or age ≥30 years, with previous MI
Follow-up: up to 7 years
Primary outcome: time to composite of CV death, nonfatal MI or ischaemic stroke
Study completion: February 2017
Dapagliflozin DECLARE-TIMI 58 [28] vs. placebo (n = 17,276)
Inclusion criteria: age ≥40 years, high CV risk
Follow-up: up to 6 years
Primary outcome: time to composite of CV death, MI or ischaemic stroke
Study completion: April 2019
Empagliflozin EMPA-REG OUTCOME [16] vs. placebo (n = 7034)
Inclusion criteria: age ≥18 years, very high CV risk
Follow-up: 3.1 years
Primary outcome: time to composite of CV death, nonfatal MI or stroke
Reduction in the primary outcome compared with placebo (HR 0.86; 95% CI 0.74–0.99; P = 0.04)
Reduced hospitalisation for heart failure (HR 0.65; 95% CI 0.57–0.82; P < 0.001)
  1. CV cardiovascular, CI confidence interval, HR hazard ratio, MI myocardial infarction