Urbanization has rapidly increased in recent decades and the negative effects on biodiversity have been widely reported. Urban green areas can contribute to improving human well-being, maintaining biodiversity, and ecosystem services (e.g. pollination). Here we examine the evolution of studies on plant–pollinator interactions in urban ecosystems worldwide, reviewing also research funding and policy actions. We documented a significant increase in the scientific production on the theme in recent years, especially in the temperate region; tropical urban ecosystems are still neglected. Plant–pollinator interactions are threatened by urbanization in complex ways, depending on the studied group (plant or pollinator [generalist or specialist]) and landscape characteristics. Several research opportunities emerge from our review. Research funding and policy actions to pollination/pollinator in urban ecosystems are still scarce and concentrated in developed countries/temperate regions. To make urban green spaces contribute to the maintenance of biodiversity and the provision of ecosystem services, transdisciplinary approaches (ecological–social–economic–cultural) are needed.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Aerts, R., V. Dewaelheyns, and W.M.J. Achten. 2016. Potential ecosystem services of urban agriculture: A review. PeerJ 4: e2286vl. https://doi.org/10.7287/peerj.preprints.2286v1.
Aleixo, K.P., L.B. Faria, M. Groppo, M.M.N. Castro, and C.I. Silva. 2014. Spatiotemporal distribution of floral resources in a Brazilian city: Implications for the maintenance of pollinators, especially bees. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 13: 689–696. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2014.08.002.
Anderson, P.M.L., C. Okereke, A. Rudd, and S. Parnell. 2013. Regional assessment of Africa. In Urbanization, biodiversity and ecosystem services: Challenges and opportunities, A global assessment, ed. T. Elmqvist, M. Fragkias, J. Goodness, B. Güneralp, P.J. Marcotullio, R.I. McDonald, S. Parnell, M. Scheweniius, et al., 453–560. London: Springer.
Anderson, P.M.L., G. Avlonitis, and H. Ernstson. 2014. Ecological outcomes of civic and expert-led urban greening projects using indigenous plant species in Cape Town, South Africa. Landscape and Urban Planning 127: 104–113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2014.03.007.
Andrieu, E., A. Dornier, S. Rouifed, B. Schatz, and P.O. Cheptou. 2009. The town Crepis and the country Crepis: How does fragmentation affect a plant–pollinator interaction? Acta Oecologia 35: 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actao.2008.07.002.
Arizmendi, M.C., M.S. Constanza, J. Lourdes, F.M. Ivonne, and L.S. Edgar. 2007. Effect of nectar feeders over diversity and abundance of hummingbirds and breeding success of two plant species in a sub-urban park next to Mexico City. Biological Conservation 136: 155–158. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2006.11.016.
Baldock, K.C.R., M.A. Goddard, D.M. Hicks, W.E. Kunin, N. Mitschunas, L.M. Osgathorpe, P.I. Vaughan, and J. Memmott. 2015. Where is the UK’s pollinators biodiversity? The importance of urban areas for flower-visiting insects. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 282: 20142849. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2014.2849.
Baldock, K.C.R., M.A. Goddard, D.M. Hicks, W.E. Kunin, N. Mitschunas, H. Morse, L.M. Osgathorpe, S.G. Potts, et al. 2019. A systems approach reveals urban pollinator hotspots and conservation opportunities. Nature Ecology & Evolution 3: 363–373. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-018-0769-y.
Barton, J., and J. Pretty. 2010. What is the best dose of nature and green exercise for improving mental health: A multi-study analysis? Environmental Science and Technology 44: 3947–3955. https://doi.org/10.1021/es903183r.
Basteri, G., and S. Benvenuti. 2010. Wildflowers pollinators-attractivity in the urban ecosystem. Acta Horticulturae 881: 585–590. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2010.881.98.
Bates, A.J., J.P. Sadler, A.J. Fairbrass, S.J. Falk, J.D. Hale, and T.J. Matthews. 2011. Changing bee and hoverfly pollinators assemblages along an urban-rural gradient. PLoS ONE 6: e23459. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023459.
Bauer, D.M., and I.S. Wing. 2010. Economic consequences of pollinator declines: A synthesis. Agricultural and Resource Economics Review 39: 368–383. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1068280500007371.
Bennett, A.B., and S. Lovell. 2019. Landscape and local site variables differentially influence pollinators and pollination services in urban agricultural sites. PLoS ONE 14: e0212034. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0212034.
Bennet, D.G., D. Kelly, and J. Clemens. 2018. Food plants and foraging distances for the native bee Lasioglossum sordidumin Christchurch Botanic Gardens. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 42: 40–47. https://doi.org/10.20417/nzjecol.42.1.
Benvenuti, S. 2014. Wildflower green roofs for urban landscaping, ecological sustainability and biodiversity. Landscape and Urban Planning 124: 151–161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2014.01.004.
Bergerot, B., B. Fontaine, M. Renard, A. Cadi, and R. Julliard. 2010. Preferences for exotics flowers do not promote urban life in butterflies. Landscape and Urban Planning 96: 98–107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2010.02.007.
Bonnington, C., K.J. Gaston, and K.L. Evans. 2013. Squirrels in suburbia: Influence of urbanization on the occurrence and distribution of a common exotic mammal. Urban Ecosystem 17: 533–546. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-013-0331-2.
Boulton, C., A. Dedekorkut-Howes, and J. Byrne. 2018. Factors shaping urban greenspace provision: A systematic review of the literature. Landscape and Urban Planning 178: 82–101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.05.029.
Brizola-Bonacina, A.K., V.M. Arruda, V.V. Alves-Junior, J. Chaud-Netto, and L.P. Polatto. 2012. Bee visitors of quaresmeira flowers (Tibouchina granulosa Cogn.) in the Region of Dourados (MS-Brasil). Sociobiology 59: 1253–1267.
Brown, J.H. 2014. Why are there so many species in the tropics? Journal of Biogeography 41: 8–22. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.12228.
Buchholz, S., and I. Kowarik. 2019. Urbanisation modulates plant–pollinator interactions in invasive vs. native plant species. Scientific Reports 9: 6375. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42884-6.
Calviño-Cancela, M. 2006. Time-activity budgets and behaviour of the Amazilia hummingbird, Amazilia amazilia (Apodiformes: Trochilidae) in an urban environment. Revista de Biología Tropical 54: 873–878.
Cheptou, P.O., and V.L.G. Andevaño. 2006. Pollination processes and the Allee effect in highly fragmented populations: Consequences for the mating system in urban environments. New Phytologist 172: 774–783. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2006.01880.x.
Coetzee, A., P. Barnard, and A. Pauw. 2017. Indigenous plants and artificial nectar sources facilitate urban adjustment of avian pollinators in Cape Town. South African Journal of Botany 109: 330. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2017.01.039.
Coetzee, A., P. Barnard, and A. Pauw. 2018. Urban nectarivorous bird communities in Cape Town, South Africa, are structured by ecological generalisation and resource distribution. Journal of Avian Biology 49: e01526. https://doi.org/10.1111/jav.01526.
Courtney, E.G., B.M. Potts, J.A. Schweitzer, and J.K. Bailey. 2014. Shifts in species interactions due to the evolution of functional differences between endemics and non-endemics: An endemic syndrome hypothesis. PLoS ONE 9: e111190. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111190.
Cox, D.T.C., D.F. Shanahan, H.L. Hudson, R.A. Fuller, and K.J. Gaston. 2018. The impact of urbanization on nature dose and the implications for human health. Landscape and Urban Planning 179: 72–80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.07.013.
Denisow, B., S. Antón, and G. Szymczak. 2013. The flowering, pollen production, and insect visitors in the ornamental shrub Potentilla fruticose L. (Rosaceae). Journal of Apicultural Science 57: 95–105. https://doi.org/10.2478/jas-2013-0011.
Desaegher, J., S. Nadot, N. Machon, and B. Colas. 2019. How does urbanization affect the reproductive characteristics and ecological affinities of street plant communities? Ecology and Evolution 9: 9977–9989. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.5539.
De Zeeuw, H., R. van Veenhuizen, and M. Dubbeling. 2011. The role of urban agriculture in building resilient cities in developing countries. Journal of Agricultural Science 149: 153–163. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859610001279.
Dicks, L.V., B. Viana, R. Bommarco, B. Brosi, M.D. Arizmendi, S.A. Cunningham, L. Galetto, R. Hill, et al. 2016. Ten policies for pollinators. Science 354: 975–976. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aai9226.
Dimensions Platform. 2020. https://app.dimensions.ai. Accessed on March 13, 2020, under licence agreement.
EIP Associates. 2002. Significant Natural Resource Areas Management Plan. San Francisco: E.I.P Associates.
Elmqvist, T., H. Setälä, S.N. Handel, S. van der Ploeg, J. Aronson, J.N. Blignaut, E. Gómez-Baggethun, D.J. Nowak, et al. 2015. Benefits of restoring ecosystem services in urban areas. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 14: 101–108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2015.05.001.
FAO. 2014. Benefits of urban and peri-urban forestry. https://www.fao.org/forestry/urbanforestry/87029/en/.
FAO. 2018. Forests and sustainable cities: Inspiring stories from around the world. 92p.
Fetridge, E.D., J.S. Ascher, and G.A. Langellotto. 2008. The bee fauna of residential gardens in a suburb of New York City (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 101: 1067–1077. https://doi.org/10.1603/0013-8746-101.6.1067.
Flogard, C. 2007. Preserved and remnant natural vegetation in cities: A geographically divided field of research. Landscape Research 32: 79–94. https://doi.org/10.1080/01426390601097750.
Foster, G., J. Bennett, and T. Sparks. 2016. An assessment of bumblebee (Bombus spp.) land use and floral preference in UK gardens and allotments cultivated for food. Urban Ecosystems 20: 425–434. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-016-0604-7.
François, C., L. Alexandre, and R. Julliard. 2008. Effects of landscape urbanization on magpie occupancy dynamics in France. Landscape Ecology 23: 527–538. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-008-9211-1.
Frankie, G.W., R.W. Thorp, M. Schindler, J. Hernandez, B. Ertter, and M. Rizzardi. 2005. Ecological patterns of bees and their host ornamental flowers in two northern California cities. Journal of Kansas Entomological Society 78: 227–246. https://doi.org/10.2317/0407.08.1.
Frankie, G.W., R.W. Thorp, J. Hernandez, M. Rizzardi, B. Ertter, J.C. Pawelek, S.L. Witt, M. Schindler, et al. 2009. Native bees are a rich natural resource in urban California gardens. California Agriculture 63: 113–120.
French, K., R. Major, and K. Hely. 2005. Use of native and exotic garden plants by suburban nectarivorous birds. Biological Conservation 121: 545–559. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2004.06.004.
Gallai, N., and B.E. Vaissière. 2009. Guidelines for the economic valuation of pollination services at a national scale. Rome: FAO.
Gallai, N., J. Salles, J. Settele, and B.E. Vaissière. 2009. Economic valuation of the vulnerability of world agriculture confronted with pollinator decline. Ecological Economics 68: 810–821. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2008.06.014.
Garbuzov, M., and F.L.W. Ratnieks. 2014. Listamania: The strengths and weaknesses of lists of garden plants to help pollinators. BioScience 64: 1019–1026. https://doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biu150.
Garratt, M.P.D., T.D. Breeze, N. Jenner, C. Polce, J.C. Biesmeijer, and S.G. Potts. 2014. Avoiding a bad apple: Insect pollination enhances fruit quality and economic value. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 184: 34–40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2013.10.032.
Geslin, B., B. Gauzens, E. Thébault, and I. Dajoz. 2013. Plant pollinator networks along a gradient of urbanization. PLoS ONE 8: e63421.
Glaum, P., M.C. Simao, C. Vaidya, G. Fitch, and B. Iulinao. 2017. Big city Bombus: Using natural history and land-use history to find significant environmental drivers in bumble-bee declines in urban development. Royal Society Open Science 4: 170156. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.170156.
Guenat, S., W.E. Kunin, A.J. Dougill, and M. Dallimer. 2018. Effects of urbanisation and management practices on pollinators in tropical Africa. Journal of Applied Ecology 56: 214–224. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.13270.
Hall, D., G.R. Camilo, R.K. Tonietto, J. Ollerton, K. Ahrné, M. Arduser, J.S. Ascher, K.C. Baldock, et al. 2016. The city as a refuge for insect pollinators. Conservation Biology 31:24–29. https://doi.org/10.1111/cobi.12840.
Hall, D.M., and R. Steiner. 2019. Insect pollinator conservation policy innovations: Lessons for lawmakers. Environmental Science and Policy 93: 118–128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2018.12.026.
Hamblin, A.L., E. Youngsteadt, and S.D. Frank. 2018. Wild bee abundance declines with urban warming, regardless of floral density. Urban Ecosystems 21: 419–428. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-018-0731-4.
Harrison, T., and R. Winfree. 2015. Urban drivers of plant–pollinator interactions. Functional Ecology 29: 879–888. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2435.12486.
Hennig, E.I., and J. Ghazoul. 2011. Pollinating animals in the urban environment. Urban Ecosystems 15: 149–166. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-011-0202-7.
Hook, D.W., S.J. Porter, and C. Herzog. 2018. Dimensions: Building context for search and evaluation. Frontiers in Research Metrics and Analytics 3: 1–11. https://doi.org/10.3389/frma.2018.00023.
Hou, Q.Z., X. Pang, Y.P. Wang, K. Sun, L.Y. Jia, S.H. Zhang, and Q.X. Li. 2019. Urbanization threaten the pollination of Gentiana dahurica. Scientific Reports 9: 583. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-36773-7.
IPBES - Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services. 2016. The assessment report of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services on pollinators, pollination and food production. Potts SG, Imperatriz-Fonseca VL, Ngo HT (Eds). Secretariat of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, Bonn, Germany.
Irwin, R.E., C. Galen, J.J. Rabenold, R. Kaczorowski, and M.L. McCutcheon. 2018. Mechanisms of tolerance to floral larceny in two wildflower species. Ecology 889: 3093–3104. https://doi.org/10.1890/08-0081.1.
Jain, A., K. Kunte, and E.L. Webb. 2016. Flower specialization of butterflies and impacts of non-native flower use in a transformed tropical landscape. Biological Conservation 201: 184–191. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2016.06.034.
Jędrzejewska-Szmek, K., and M. Zych. 2013. Flower-visitor and pollen transport networks in a large city: Structure and properties. Arthropod–Plant Interactions 7: 503–516. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11829-013-9274-z.
Jung, K., and C.G. Threlfall. 2015. Urbanisation and its effects: a global meta-analysis. In Bats in the Anthropocene: Conservation of bats in changing world, ed. C.C. Voigt and T. Kingston, 13–34. Berlin: Springer.
Jusselme, M.D., C. Pruvost, E. Motard, S. Giusti-Miller, S. Frechault, V. Alphonse, C. Balland-Bolou-Bi, I. Dajoz, et al. 2019. Increasing the ability of a green roof to provide ecosystem services by adding organic matter and earthworms. Applied Soil Ecology 143: 61–69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2019.05.028.
Kabisch, N., and D. Haase. 2012. Green spaces of European cities revisited for 1990–2006. Landscape and Urban Planning 110: 113–122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2012.10.017.
Kendal, D., N.S.G. Williams, and K.J.H. Williams. 2012. Drivers of diversity and tree cover in gardens, parks and streetscapes in an Australian city. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 11: 257–265. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2012.03.005.
Klatt, B.K., A. Holzschuh, C. Westphal, Y. Clough, I. Smit, E. Pawelzik, and T. Tscharntke. 2014. Bee pollination improves crop quality, shelf life and commercial value. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 281: 20132440. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2013.2440.
Klein, A.M., B.E. Vaissière, J.H. Cane, I. Steffan-Dewenter, S.A. Cunningham, C. Kremen, and T. Tscharntke. 2007. Importance of pollinators in changing landscapes for world crops. Proceedings in Biological Sciences/ The Royal Society 274: 303–313. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2006.3721.
Kobayashi, S., T. Denda, C.-C. Liao, Y.-H. Lin, W.-T. Liu, and M. Izawa. 2018. Comparison of visitors and pollinators of Mucuna macrocarpa between urban and forest environments. BioOne 43: 219–228. https://doi.org/10.3106/ms2018-0029.
Kovács-Hostyánski, A., J.L. Li, J. Pettis, J. Settele, T. Aneni, A. Espíndola, S. Kahono, H. Szentgyorgyi, et al. 2016. Drivers of change of pollinators, pollination networks and pollination. In IBPES: The assessment report of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services on pollinators, pollination and food production, ed. S.G. Potts, V.L. Imperatriz-Fonseca, and H.T. Ngo, 27–149. Bonn: IBPES.
Kratschmer, S., M. Kriechbaum, and B. Pachinger. 2018. Buzzing on top: Linking wild bee diversity, abundance and traits with green roof qualities. Urban Ecosystems 21: 429–446. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-017-0726-6.
Ksiazek, K., J. Fant, and K. Skogen. 2012. An assessment of pollen limitation on Chicago green roofs. Landscape and Urban Planning 4: 401–408. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2012.07.008.
Leong, M., C. Kremen, and G.K. Roderick. 2014. Pollinator interactions with Yellow Starthistle (Cantaurea solstitialis) across urban, agricultural and natural landscapes. PLoS ONE 9: e86357. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0086357.
Leveau, L.M. 2008. Dynamics of nectarivore in the house sparrow in an urban environment. Ornitologia Tropical 19: 275–281.
Liu, H., and S. Koptur. 2003. Breeding system and pollination on a narrowly endemic herb of the Lower Florida Keys: Impacts of the urban-wildland interface. American Journal of Botany 90: 1180–1187. https://doi.org/10.3732/ajb.90.8.1180.
Lopez-Uribe, M.M., C.A. Oi, and M.A. Del Lama. 2008. Nectar-foraging behavior of Euglossini bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in urban areas. Apidologie 39: 410–418. https://doi.org/10.1051/apido:2008023.
Lowenstein, D.M., K.C. Matteson, and E.S. Minor. 2019. Evaluating the dependence of urban pollinators on ornamental, non-native, and ‘weedy’ floral resources. Urban Ecosystems 22: 293–302. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-018-0817-z.
Luder, K., E. Knop, and M.H.M. Menz. 2018. Contrasting responses in community structure and phenology of migratory and non-migratory pollinators to urbanization. Diversity and Distribution 24: 919–927. https://doi.org/10.1111/ddi.12735.
Maruyama, P.K., C. Bonizário, A.P. Marcon, G. D’Angelo, M.M. Silva, E.N.S. Neto, P.E. Oliveira, I. Sazima, et al. 2019. Plant-hummingbird interaction networks in urban areas: Generalization and the importance of trees with specialized flowers as a nectar resource for pollinator conservation. Biological Conservation 230: 187–194. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2018.12.012.
Matteson, K.C., and G.A. Langellotto. 2009. Bumble bee abundance in New York City community gardens: Implications for urban agriculture. Cities and Environment 2: 5–12.
Matteson, K.C., and G.A. Langellotto. 2011. Small scale additions of native plants fail to increase beneficial insect richness in urban gardens. Insect Conservation and Diversity 4: 89–98. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-4598.2010.00103.x.
Matteson, K.C., J.B. Grace, and E.S. Minor. 2013. Direct and indirect effects of land use on floral resources and flower-visiting insects across an urban landscape. Oikos 122: 682–694. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2012.20229.x.
McFrederick, Q.S., and G. LeBuhn. 2006. Are urban parks refuges for bumble bees Bombus spp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae)? Biological Conservation 129: 372–382. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2005.11.004.
McKinney, M.L. 2002. Urbanization, biodiversity and conservation. BioScience 52: 883–890. https://doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2002)052[0883:UBAC]2.0.CO;2.
McKinney, M.L. 2006. Urbanization as a major cause of biotic homogenization. Biological Conservation 127: 247–260. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2005.09.005.
McKinney, M.L. 2008. Effects of urbanization on species richness: A review of plants and animals. Urban Ecosystems 11: 161–176. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-007-0045-4.
Melles, S., S. Glenn, and K. Martin. 2003. Urban bird diversity and landscape complexity: Species-environment association a long a multiscale habitat gradient. Ecology and Society 7: 5.
Mendonça, L.B., and L. Anjos. 2006. Feeding behavior of hummingbirds and perching birds on Erythrina speciosa Andrews (Fabaceae) flowers in an urban area, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 23: 42–49.
Moher, D., A. Liberati, J. Tetzlaff, and D.G. Altman. 2009. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA Statement. PLoS Medicine 6 (7): e1000097. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed1000097.
Morales, C.L., and M.A. Aizen. 2002. Does invasion of exotic plants promote invasion of exotic flower visitors? A case study from the temperate forests of the southern Andes. Biological Invasions 4: 87–100.
Morales, C.L., and M.A. Aizen. 2006. Invasive mutualisms and the structure of plant-pollinator interactions in the temperate forests of north-west Patagonia, Argentina. Journal of Ecology 94: 171–180.
Moro, M.F., C. Westerkamp, and F.S. Araújo. 2014. How much importance is given to native plants in cities’ treescape? A case study in Fortaleza, Brazil. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 13: 365–374. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2014.01.005.
Moro, M.F., and A.S.F. Castro. 2015. A check list of plant species in the urban forestry of Fortaleza, Brazil: Where are the native species in the country of megadiversity? Urban Ecosystems 18: 47–71. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-014-0380-1.
Morón, D., L. Przylowiccs, M. Nobis, A. Nobis, E. Klichowska, M. Lenda, P. Skórka, and P. Tryjanowski. 2017. Do levees support diversity and affects spatial turnover of communities in plant-herbivore systems in an urban landscape? Ecological Engineering 105: 198–204. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2017.04.052.
Müller, N., M. Ignatieva, C.H. Nilon, P. Werner, and W.C. Zipperer. 2013. Patterns and trends in urban biodiversity and landscape design. In Urbanization, biodiversity and ecosystem services: Challenges and opportunities, A global assessment, ed. T. Elmqvist, M. Fragkias, J. Goodness, B. Güneralp, P.J. Marcotullio, R.I. McDonald, S. Parnell, M. Scheweniius, et al., 123–174. Springer: London.
Myers, N., R.A. Mittermeier, C.G. Mittermeier, G.A.B. Fonseca, and J. Kent. 2000. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403: 853–858.
Novais, S.M.A., C.A. Nunes, N.B. Santos, A.R. D’Amico, G.W. Fernandes, M. Quesada, R.F. Braga, and A.C.O. Neves. 2016. Effects of a possible pollinator crisis on food crop production in Brazil. PLoS ONE 11: e0167292. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0167292.
Ollerton, J., R. Winfree, and S. Tarrant. 2011. How many flowering plants are pollinated by animals? Oikos 120: 321–326. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2010.18644.x.
Oliveira, W., J.L.S. Silva, M.T.P. Oliveira, O. Cruz-Neto, L.A.P. Silva, L.A. Borges, M.S. Sobrinho, and A.V. Lopes. 2019. Reduced reproductive success of the endangered tree brazilwood (Paubrasilia echinata, Leguminosae) in urban ecosystem compared to Atlantic forest remnant: Lessons for tropical urban ecology. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 41: 303–312. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2019.04.020.
Oliveira, W., J.L.S. Silva, M.T.P. Oliveira, O. Cruz-Neto, L.A.P. Silva, L.A. Borges, M.S. Sobrinho, and A.V. Lopes. 2019. Flowering and fruiting synchronization, pollen number, floral visitors and reproductive success of Paubrasilia echinata (brazilwood; Leguminosae) in tropical urban ecosystem in comparison to Atlantic forest remnant: A dataset description. Data in Brief 25: 104177. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2019.104177.
Orsini, F., R. Kahane, and nono-Womdim, R., Giaquinto, G. . 2013. Urban agriculture in the developing world: A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 33: 695–720. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13593-013-0143-z.
Pauchard, A., and O. Barbosa. 2013. Regional assessment of Latin America: Rapid urban development and social economic inequity threaten biodiversity hotspots. In Urbanization, biodiversity and ecosystem services: Challenges and opportunities A global assessment, ed. T. Elmqvist, M. Fragkias, J. Goodness, B. Güneralp, P.J. Marcotullio, R.I. McDonald, S. Parnell, M. Scheweniius, et al., 580–607. London: Springer.
Pardee, G.L., and S.M. Philpott. 2014. Native plants are the bee’s knees: Local and landscape predictors of bee richness and abundance in backyard gardens. Urban Ecosystems 17: 641–659. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-014-0349-0.
Parker, I.M. 1997. Pollinator limitation of Cytisus scoparius (Scotch Broom), an invasive exotic shrub. Ecology 78: 1457–1470.
Pauw, A., and K. Louw. 2012. Urbanization drives a reduction in functional diversity in a guild of nectar-feeding birds. Ecology and Society 17: 27. https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-04758-170227.
Pellegrino, G., and F. Bellusci. 2014. Effects of human disturbance on reproductive success and population viability of Serapias cordigera. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 176: 408–420. https://doi.org/10.1111/boj.12204.
Pellissier, V., A. Muratet, F. Verfaillie, and N. Machon. 2012. Pollination success of Lotus corniculatus (L.) in an urban context. Acta Oecologia 39: 94–100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actao.2012.01.008.
Pellissier, V., N. Maurel, and N. Machon. 2013. Multi-scale assessment of pollination of Lotus corniculatus (L.) in a peri-urban fringe. Plant Ecology & Diversity 6: 195–203. https://doi.org/10.1080/17550874.2012.755227.
Peng, J., H. Zhao, and Y. Liu. 2017. Urban ecological corridors construction: A review. Acta Ecologica Sinica 37: 23–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.12.002.
Previatto, D.M., R.S. Mizove, and S.R. Posso. 2012. Birds as potential pollinators of the Spatodea nilotica (Bignoniaceae) in the urban environment. Brazilian Journal of Biology 73: 737–741.
Potter, A., and G. LeBuhn. 2015. Pollination service to urban agriculture in San Francisco, CA. Urban Ecosystems 18: 885–893. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-015-0435-y.
Potts, S.G., J.C. Biesmejier, C. Kremen, P. Neumann, O. Schweiger, and W.E. Kunin. 2010. Global pollinator declines: Trends, impacts and drivers. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 25: 345–353. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2010.01.007.
Potts, S.G., V. Imperatriz-Fonseca, H.T. Ngo, J.C. Biesmeijer, T.D. Breeze, L.V. Dicks, L.A. Garibaldi, R. Hill, et al. 2016. Summary for policymakers of the thematic assessment on pollinators, pollination and food production Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Key messages Values of pollinators and pollination. Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services 3: 1–24.
Pufal, G., and A.M. Klein. 2015. Spatial scale affects seed predation and dispersal in contrasting anthropogenic landscapes. Basic and Applied Ecology 16: 726–736. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.baae.2015.07.003.
Ratto, F., B.I. Simmons, R. Spake, V. Zamora-Gutierrez, M.A. MacDonald, J.C. Merriman, C.J. Tremlett, G.M. Poppy, et al. 2018. Global importance of vertebrate pollinators for plant reproductive success: A meta-analysis. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 16: 82–90. https://doi.org/10.1002/fee.1763.
Rossum, F.V. 2010. Reproductive success and pollen dispersal in urban populations of an insect-pollinated hay-meadow herb. Perspectives in Plant, Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 12: 21–29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ppees.2009.08.002.
Russo, D., and L. Ancillotto. 2015. Sensitivity of bats to urbanization: A review. Mammalian Biology 80: 205–2012. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mambio.2014.10.003.
Sattler, T., P. Duelli, M.K. Obrist, R. Arlettaz, and M. Moretti. 2010. Response of arthropod species richness and functional groups to urban habitat structure and management. Landscape Ecology 25: 941–954. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-010-9473-2.
Shwartz, A., A. Turbé, L. Simon, and R. Julliard. 2013. Enhancing urban diversity and its influence on city-dwellers: An experiment. Biological Conservation 171: 82–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2014.01.009.
Seto, K.C., S. Parnell, and T. Elmqvist. 2013. A global outlook on urbanization. In Urbanization, biodiversity and ecosystem services: Challenges and opportunities, A global assessment, ed. T. Elmqvist, M. Fragkias, J. Goodness, B. Güneralp, P.J. Marcotullio, R.I. McDonald, S. Parnell, M. Scheweniius, et al. London: Springer.
Siemszko, M., and M. Zych. 2017. Urban ecosystems—a place for pollinators? A mini-review and social implications. Miestųželdynų Formavimas 1: 193–201.
Silva, J.L.S., M.T.P. Oliveira, W. Oliveira, L.A. Borges, O. Cruz-Neto, and A.V. Lopes. 2020. High richness of exotic species in tropical urban green spaces: Reproductive systems, fruiting and associated risks to native species. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 50: 126659. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2020.126659.
Sluijs, J.P., and N.S. Vaage. 2016. Pollinators and global food security: The need for holistic global stewardship. Food Ethics 1: 75–91. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41055-016-0003-z.
Smit, J., A. Ratta, and J. Nasr. 1996. Urban agriculture: Food, jobs and sustainable cities. New York: UNDP.
Smith, R.M., P.H. Warren, K. Thompson, and K.J. Gaston. 2006. Urban domestic gardens (VI): Environmental correlates of invertebrate species richness. Biodiversity and Conservation 15: 2415–2538. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-004-5014-0.
Stout, J.C., and C.L. Morales. 2009. Ecological impacts of invasive alien species on bee. Apidologie 40: 388–409.
Tommasi, D., A. Miro, H.A. Higo, and M.L. Winston. 2004. Bee diversity and abundance in an urban setting. The Canadian Entomologist 136: 851–869. https://doi.org/10.4039/n04-010.
Tonietto, R., J. Fant, J. Ascher, K. Ellis, and D. Larkin. 2011. A comparison of bee communities of Chicago green roofs, parks and prairies. Landscape and Urban Planning 103: 102–108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2011.07.004.
Totland, O., A. Nielsen, A.L. Bjerknes, and M. Ohlson. 2006. Effects of an exotic plant and habitat disturbance on pollinator visitation and reproduction in a boreal forest herb. American Journal of Botany 93: 868–873. https://doi.org/10.3732/ajb.93.6.868.
Tratalos, J., R.A. Fuller, P.H. Warren, R.G. Davies, and K.J. Gaston. 2006. Urban form, biodiversity potential and ecosystem services. Landscape and Urban Planning 83: 308–317. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2007.05.003.
Traveset, A., R. Heleno, S. Chamorro, P. Vargas, C.K. McMullen, R. Castro-Urgal, M. Nogales, H.W. Herrera, et al. 2013. Invaders of pollination networks in the Galápagos Islands: emergence of novel communities. Proceedings of the Royal Society 280: 20123040. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2012.3040.
United Nations. 2019. World economic situation prospects 2019. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nation publication, Sales No.E.19.II.C.1. 218pp.
van Veenhuizen, R. 2006. Cities farming for the future, urban agriculture for green and productive cities. RUAF Foundation, IDRC and IIRR, Phillipines
Verboven, H.A.S., R. Brys, and M. Hermy. 2012. Sex in the city: Reproductive success of Digitalis purpurea in a gradient from urban to rural sites. Landscape and Urban Planning 106: 158–164. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2012.02.015.
Viana, B.F., D.N. Boscolo, E. Mariano-Neto, L.E. Lopes, A.V. Lopes, P.A. Ferreira, C.M. Pigozzo, and L.M. Primo. 2012. How well do we understand landscape effects on pollinators and pollination services? Journal of Pollination Ecology 7: 31–40.
Wang, D., J. Chen, L. Zhang, Z. Sun, X. Wang, X. Zhang, and W. Zhang. 2019. Establishing an ecological security pattern for urban agglomeration, taking ecosystem services and human interferences factors into consideration. PeerJ 7: e7306. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.7306.
Wenzel, A., I. Grass, V.V. Belavadi, and T. Tscharntke. 2020. How urbanization is driving pollinator diversity and pollination: A systematic review. Biological Conservation 241: 108321. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2019.108321.
Winfree, R., T. Griswold, and C. Kremen. 2007. Effect of human disturbance on bee communities in a forested ecosystem. Conservation Biology 21: 213–223. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2006.00574.x.
Wray, J.C., and E. Elle. 2015. Flowering phenology and nesting resources influence pollinator community composition in a fragmented ecosystem. Landscape Ecology 30: 261–271. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-014-0121-0.
Zhang, L., P.Y. Tan, and J. Diehl. 2017. A conceptual framework for studying urban green spaces effects on health. Journal of Urban Ecology 3: 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1093/jue/jux015.
Zhao, C., H.A. Sander, and S.D. Hendrix. 2019. Wild bees and urban agriculture: Assessing pollinator supply and demand across urban landscapes. Urban Ecosystems 22: 455–470. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-019-0826-6.
Zotarelli, H.G.S., D.M. Evans, L.R. Bego, and S.H. Sofia. 2014. A comparison of social bee-plant networks between two urban areas. Neotropical Entomology 43: 399–408. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13744-014-0227-8.
We would like to thank Fundação de Amparo à Ciência e Tecnologia do Estado de Pernambuco-FACEPE, which funded this study via grants to JLSS (Grant No. IBPG-0774-2.03/13), MTPO (grant number IBPG-0420-2.03/14) and OCN (Grant No. APQ-0789-2.05/16 and BCT-0208-2.05/17). The study was also funded by Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico-CNPq (Grants: 481755/2013-6 and 309505/20186 to AVL) and Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior-CAPES (Grant 001 to MTPO, JLSS, OCN, MT and AVL). Data on Research funding/Grants and Policy documents were kindly provided by Digital Science’s Dimensions Platform (2020), an inter-linked research information system (https://app.dimensions.ai).
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Electronic supplementary material
Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.
About this article
Cite this article
Silva, J.L.S., de Oliveira, M.T.P., Cruz-Neto, O. et al. Plant–pollinator interactions in urban ecosystems worldwide: A comprehensive review including research funding and policy actions. Ambio 50, 884–900 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-020-01410-z
- Ecosystem service
- Urban ecology
- Urban green areas