Trophic Rewilding Advancement in Anthropogenically Impacted Landscapes (TRAAIL): A framework to link conventional conservation management and rewilding
A variety of rewilding initiatives are being implemented across Europe, generally characterized by a more functionalist approach to nature management compared to the classic compositional approach. To address the increasing need for a framework to support implementation of rewilding in practical management, we present TRAAIL—Trophic Rewilding Advancement in Anthropogenically Impacted Landscapes. TRAAIL has been co-produced with managers and other stakeholders and provides managers with a framework to categorize rewilding initiatives and to link conventional nature management and rewilding by guiding steps towards a higher degree of self-regulation. Applying TRAAIL to data obtained in a Danish survey of rewilding-inspired initiatives we find that out of 44 initiatives there is no “Full rewilding” initiatives, 3 “Near-full rewilding” initiatives, 23 “Partial rewilding” initiatives, 2 “minimal rewilding” initiatives and 16 “Effort-intensive conservation management” initiatives. This study shows how TRAAIL can guide and inform trophic rewilding on a local and national scale.
KeywordsCategorization Conservation management Ecological restoration Large herbivores Protected areas Trophic rewilding
This work was supported by Aarhus University (PBMP) and the Aage V. Jensen Foundations (PBMP, RE). We also consider this study a contribution to JCS’s Carlsberg Foundation Semper Arden project MegaPast2Future (grant CF16-0005), to the Danish National Research Foundation Niels Bohr professorship project Aarhus University Research on the Anthropocene (AURA), and to JCS’ VILLUM Investigator project (VILLUM FONDEN, grant 16549). The authors would like to thank an editor and two reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions to improve this work. For feedback on the TRAAIL model the authors would like to thank the members of EnviNa (Environment and Nature), The Nature Agency (Naturstyrelsen), and participants at the workshop “Visual Communication Clinic” at University of Cambridge (organized by University of Cambridge Conservation Research Institute (UCCRI) and Cambridge Centre for Environment, Energy and Natural Resource Governance (C-EENRG)).
- Aaris-Sørensen, K. 2009. Diversity and dynamics of the mammalian fauna in Denmark throughout the last glacial–interglacial cycle, 115-0 kyr BP. In Fossils and strata, ed. G.M. Svend Stouge. Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
- Bakker, E.S., J.L. Gill, C.N. Johnson, F.W. Vera, C.J. Sandom, G.P. Asner, and J.C. Svenning. 2016. Combining paleo-data and modern exclosure experiments to assess the impact of megafauna extinctions on woody vegetation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Unites States of America 113: 847–855. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1502545112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Barkham, P. 2018. The magical wilderness farm: raising cows among the weeds at Knepp. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/jun/15/the-magical-wilderness-farm-raising-cows-among-the-weeds-at-knepp. Accessed 30 March 2019.
- Barras, C. 2016. The Chernobyl exclusion zone is arguably a nature reserve. http://www.bbc.com/earth/story/20160421-the-chernobyl-exclusion-zone-is-arguably-a-nature-reserve. Accessed 30 March 2019.
- Bern Convention. 1979. Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats. Bern.Google Scholar
- Berthelsen, J.P., and M. Nitschke. 2015. Overvågning af Castor fiber i Vestjylland 2011–2014. Nationalt center for miljø og energi (in Danish).Google Scholar
- CBD. 2010. Revised and updated strategic plan: Technical rationale and suggested milestones and indicators. Nagoya: CBD.Google Scholar
- Doughty, C.E., J. Roman, S. Faurby, A. Wolf, A. Haque, E.S. Bakker, Y. Malhi, J.B. Dunning Jr., et al. 2016. Global nutrient transport in a world of giants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Unites States of America 113: 868–873. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1502549112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- ESRI. 2018. ArcGIS. Redland: ESRI.Google Scholar
- European Commission. 1992a. Council Directive 79/409/EEC on the Conservation of Wild Birds.Google Scholar
- European Commission. 1992b. Council Directive 92/43/EEC on the Conservation of Natural Habitats and of Wild Fauna and Flora.Google Scholar
- European Commission. 2011. The EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020. Luxembourg: European Commission.Google Scholar
- European Commission. 2013. Guidelines on wilderness in Natura 2000. Management of terrestrial wildernesses and wild areas within the Natura 2000 Network. Technical report 2013-069.Google Scholar
- Gillson, L., R.J. Ladle, and M.B. Araujo. 2011. Baselines, patterns and process. In Conservation biogeography, eds. R.J. Ladle and R.J. Whittaker. Blackwell Publisher. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444390001.
- Hodder, K.H., J.M. Bullock, P.C. Buckland, and K.J. Kirby. 2005. Large herbivores in the wildwood and modern naturalistic grazing systems. Peterborough: English Nature.Google Scholar
- Jepson, P. 2018. Rewilding’s next generation will mean no more reserves full of starving animals. http://theconversation.com/rewildings-next-generation-will-mean-no-more-reserves-full-of-starving-animals-96140. Accessed 30 March 2019.
- Jepson, P., and F. Schepers. 2016. Making space for rewilding: Creating an enabling policy environment. Nijmegen: Rewilding Europe.Google Scholar
- Kowalczyk, R., P. Taberlet, E. Coissac, A. Valentini, C. Miquel, T. Kamiński, and J.M. Wójcik. 2011. Influence of management practices on large herbivore diet—Case of European bison in Białowieża Primeval Forest (Poland). Forest Ecology and Management 261: 821–828. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2010.11.026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mannstedt, T. 2015. Biotopplege mit pferden. Auswirkungen einer ganzjährigen Beweidung mit Exmoor-Ponys (Equus ferus f. caballus) auf halboffene Weidelandschaften am Beispiel Süd-Langeland. Master Thesis. Georg-August University School of Science (GAUSS), Göttingen (in German, English summary).Google Scholar
- Ministry for Economic Affairs and the Interior. 2014. Kommunale nøgletal. Ministry for Economic Affairs and the Interior. www.noegletal.dk. Accessed 26 Jan 2017.
- R Core Team. 2018. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.Google Scholar
- Rewilding Europe. 2016. Annual review 2015. Nijmegen: Rewilding Europe.Google Scholar
- Svenning, J.C., M. Munk, and A. Schweiger. 2019. Trophic rewilding: Ecological restoration of top-down trophic interactions to promotes self-regulating biodiverse ecosystems. In Rewilding, ed. N. Pettorelli, S. Durant, and J. Du Toit. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Svenning, J.C., P.B.M. Pedersen, C.J. Donlan, R. Ejrnaes, S. Faurby, M. Galetti, D.M. Hansen, B. Sandel, et al. 2016. Science for a wilder Anthropocene: Synthesis and future directions for trophic rewilding research. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in the United States of America 113: 898–906. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1502556112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Terborgh, J., J.A. Estes, P. Paquer, K. Ralls, D. Boyd, B. Miller, and R. Noss. 1999. The role of top carnivores in regulating terrestrial ecosystems. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
- UNEP. 1992. Convention on Biological Diversity. United Nation Environment Programme.Google Scholar
- Vera, F. 2009. Large-scale nature development—The Oostvaardersplassen. British Wildlife 20: 28–36.Google Scholar
- Vermeulen, R. 2015. Natural grazing—Practices of rewilding of cattle and horses. Free Nature.Google Scholar