, Volume 46, Issue 5, pp 554–565 | Cite as

Long-term development of hypolimnetic oxygen depletion rates in the large Lake Constance

  • Justin Rhodes
  • Harald Hetzenauer
  • Marieke A. Frassl
  • Karl-Otto Rothhaupt
  • Karsten Rinke


This study investigates over 30 years of dissolved oxygen dynamics in the deep interior of Lake Constance (max. depth: 250 m). This lake supplies approximately four million people with drinking water and has undergone strong re-oligotrophication over the past decades. We calculated depth-specific annual oxygen depletion rates (ODRs) during the period of stratification and found that 50% of the observed variability in ODR was already explained by a simple separation into a sediment- and volume-related oxygen consumption. Adding a linear factor for water depth further improved the model indicating that oxygen depletion increased substantially along the depth. Two other factors turned out to significantly influence ODR: total phosphorus as a proxy for the lake’s trophic state and mean oxygen concentration in the respective depth layer. Our analysis points to the importance of nutrient reductions as effective management measures to improve and protect the oxygen status of such large and deep lakes.


Anoxia Lake management Statistical modeling Water quality 



We would like to thank the IGKB (Internationale Gewässerschutzkomission für den Bodensee) and the ISF (Institut für Seenforschung, Langenargen, Germany) for provision of the comprehensive dataset. Sincere thanks are given to two anonymous reviewers, which significantly improved an earlier version of the manuscript. We thank the DFG (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Grant Ri 2040/1-1) and the IMPRS (International Max Planck Research School) for Organismal Biology as well as the Zukunftskolleg at the University of Konstanz for financial support.


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Copyright information

© Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Limnological InstituteUniversity of KonstanzConstanceGermany
  2. 2.Institut für SeenforschungLUBW, Landesanstalt für Umwelt, Messungen und Naturschutz Baden-WürttembergLangenargenGermany
  3. 3.Department of Lake ResearchHelmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research - UFZMagdeburgGermany
  4. 4.RavensburgGermany

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